The purpose of this study is to construct new proper scales based on experimental data in order that the semantic differential by C. E. Osgood and others may be applied to the observation and measurement of the covert reacting behaviors resulting from music appreciation. The strategies of this study are as follows. 1) Getting the subjects to appreciate various genres of musical pieces and to verbalize their feelings, moved by the musical pieces. 2) Checking statistically the semantic generality and independency of the words sampled from the verbalization of their feelings. 3) Forming pairs of polar semantic words by selecting antonyms to the sampled words that represent the feeling in each experience of music appreciation. As the result of above-mentioned work, 47 pairs of polar semantic words were found for a scale of the semantic differential for observing and measuring the covert reacting behaviors in music appreciation of elementary school children.
What makes pupils take a note in their science classes? This study aims at investigating this problem by means of a questionnaire. A total of 376 subjects is 5th and 6th graders of three elementary schools in Ibaraki Prefecture. The results indicate the following facts: (1) Most 5th or 6th graders are made to take a note by their teacher's action to write something on the blackboard and by his indication to take a note. (2) Girls are affected more frequently by their teacher's action to write something on the blackboard than boys. (3) Pupils scarecely take a note of what their teacher does not write on the black- board. (4) Few pupils take a note of what they decide to do so by themselves or of what some of their friends are doing so, and in the latter case 6th graders are more affected by their friend's act of taking a note than 5 th graders.
We have examined the state of elementary school students' understanding of the concept of function through some experimental lessons. Almost the same lessons (5 unit school hours) were given separately to the second, the third and the fourth-grade elementary school students. The features of developmental stages in the formation of the basic concept of function were then compared. Studies done so far have made all-inclusive analyses based on one lesson as a single unit. In our study, however, the degree of understanding is analysed separately in each question designed for sub-objectives within a lesson. In the present paper, features of the fourth-grade elementary school students' understanding of the concept of function are grasped in individual questions based on the degree of mastery of sub-objectives. As a result, it has become clear not only that the fourth-grade students can get higher total marks, but also that they can get good marks in the questions related to the selection of mathematically related quantities, the determination of corresponding quantities, the representation of relationship between two quantities in formulas, or the like. The fourth-grade students have therefore come to be able to consider two quantities. Furthermore, they can find how two quantities relate to one another and represent the relationship in a formula, which is an abstract expression, and using the relation find the value of one of the quantities. These would appear to be indications of a development toward functional thinking.
The present study was designed to examine important technical factors in acquirement of the astride vault using the vaulting horse. Elementary school boys practiced vaulting according to a stepwise program designed by Shoji Kokubo. Their learning process was followed using 16mm cinematography and electromyography. The present results showed that the technical points given below might be of great important to succeed in the astride vault. (i) Considering the discharge patterns of vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and gluteus maximus, a strong take off motion should be performed to raise the center of gravity of the body. (ii) To effectively elevate the center of gravity, the thrusting of the hands on the vaulting horse is essential in the first half of the hand contact phase, requiring strong activities of triceps brachii and anterior deltoid. (iii) To drive the body forward, thrusting the vaulting horse backward is important in the second half of the hand contact phase and this motion is produced by the activity of latissimus dorsi. The stages in the stepwise program of Shoji Kokubo involve the three above factors necessary to acquire the astride vault. In particular, practicing the vault with an extra stack three blocks lower placed in front of the regular stack is considered the most effective stage, because of it includes all three factors mentioned above for succeeding in the astride vault.
In this research, the authors fielded a questionnaire to 841 teachers, which were drawn at random from the total population of public elementary school teachers in Tokyo and Nagano. Replies were received from about 26 percent of the teachers. Based on the results of this study, the teachers actually teaching in elementary schools were found to hold the following view points about environmental education: (1) Nearly every teacher recognizes that a harmonious relationship between man and his natural environment is important. (2) In elementary schools today, not all teachers are familiar with the key word "environmental education". (3) Almost 90 percent of the teachers have taught science with some consciousness of its relevance to environmental education. And they think that the existing science curriculum should contain more of environmental education than the present situation. (4) Majority of the teachers think that in environmental education, our concept of the environment takes on a broader point of view, i.e., as on a gloval scale. And on the practical level, the content regarded as more important by many teachers is that which deals with the natural environment. (5) The major opinions of teachers about the practical methods of environmental education in elementary school are as follows: ○ The starting point should be set at a lower level. ○ It is better that the teaching environmental education is incorporated into the existing curriculum. ○ To be effective, teaching should be dynamic, and carried out both out of doors, to obtain many first-hands information; and, in the classroom, for designing, sorting, and discussing these information. ○ It is the homeroom teacher who should do the teaching, not special teachers or special instructors on a part time basis. (6) If and when environmental education would be incorporated into the curriculum of the elementary school, the teachers predict that there would arise difficult problems such as the following; the lack of qualified personal for teaching environmental education; the lack of funds; lots of difficulties arising from the implementation of a new curriculum; and, the lack of sympathy from the public.
Researching children's images for the science teaching-learning process, we tried semantic differential method tests. As a result, we got seven meaningfull image factors of science teaching-learning process. These factors are: 1. friendly image factor 2. difficulty image factor 3. effortful image factor 4. novel interesting image factor 5. instructional image factor 6. operationaly image factor 7. participative and interventional image factor. Moreover, we research about the source of these images through the relationship between categories of the teaching-learning process. We introduce only main results here. Categories generating friendly, non-difficulty, effortful, and novel interesting images, are presentations of information at the early stage of the teaching-learning process, teacher's speaking about closed questions and shocking ones, teacher's advice and suggestion, and knowledge of result. Categories making participative and interventional images in class, in addition to these images, are ones of communication with children including simple responses.