The purpose of this article is to investigate empirically the development of solutions through looking-back activities in terms of potential ability for mathematics learning (Nakahara, 2002). In order to investigate whether there is any development of solutions after a specific looking-back activity, a control group and three experimental groups were set up. Each experimental treatment consisted of replying to a pair of questions: the first question requested subjects to explain their own solution; the second one was intended for implementing a specific looking-back activity with the corresponding function of "checking your own solution" (Check-Solution Treatment), "inquiring into another or better solution" (Another/Better-Solution Treatment), and "examining the validity or generalizability of your own solution" (Validation/Generalization Treatment), respectively. The results were examined in terms of the treatments and the subjects' potential ability for mathematics learning, and we could find the following points. (1) For the high potential ability group, the Another/ Better-Solution Treatment was effective. (2) For the low potential ability group, all of the three treatments were effective; in particular, the Another/ Better-Solution Treatment and the Validation/Generalization Treatment contributed to the development of solutions. This was compared with the control group, whose members appeared to have the common difficulty of developing their own solution without any looking-back activity.
For the future development of nutrition education in primary schools, cooperation and collaboration is necessary between teachers of home economics and other subjects and nutrition staff (teachers), based on their respective occupational categories and duties. We studied the current nutrition education given by nutrition staff and examined the issues in the development of cooperation between home economics teachers and nutrition staff (teachers). We conducted a questionnaire survey of school nutrition staff in Nara Prefecture and found that 85% of the staff provided nutrition education. The rate was higher among those who had been working for a long time or among those at relatively large schools. 30% of the nutrition education opportunities at primary schools were given by nutrition staff as special activities, and another 30% as home economics classes. Home economics came first among the subject classes. The system should be reconsidered from the perspective of the burden on nutrition staff (teachers) and the improvement of nutrition education for lower and middle grade students. Making better classes through cooperation between class teachers and nutrition staff requires their mutual understanding, and hence there is a problem that equality of learning opportunities and educational quality for students might be dependent on the human relationships of the teachers and staff at schools.
In the Nara plan, the acquisition of necessary skills for home life had been aimed at in "Keiko (Practice) -Home economics-" in the school years 4-6. It was thought that the plan was made based on "knowledge and skills necessary for clothes, food, housing, propriety, and other aspects of life" extracted from the content of the curriculum (school years 5-9) of the 'Course of study for home economics in the fiscal year 1947' and the "textbook for housework and sewing" at that time. In "Keiko (Practice) -Home economics-", the didactics of housework and sewing were used. The following was clarified from the above-mentioned results of this research and the results of Part I of this report. In the Nara plan, home economics study involved the acquisition of "Open recognition concerning home life" aimed at in the 'Course of study for home economics in the fiscal year 1947' through "Shigoto (Work)". It also involved acquiring "necessary skills for home life" through "Keiko (Practice) -Home economics-". It was thought that the combination of these aspects lead to a concrete approach to teaching elementary school home economics in Japan.
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the structure of the curriculum for information technology education. Therefore, we investigated learners' awareness of information and computers and analyzed three levels of awareness by using factor analysis. As a result, learners' "interest and concern" was found to include the use of computers and networks, and the measuring and control of programs. It was discovered that learners were interested in networks. From the "self-evaluation", learners' awareness included software utilization, knowledge of connections between information and life, and the use of networks. It was also suggested that the use of networks was acquired. Learners' awareness of "importance" was involved with basic ability at information processing, creative information processing and mutual expression of information. The relationship among these factors divided the curriculum for information technology education into eight types, and it could be inferred that awareness varies from the function and use of software.
This paper reports on narrative-based writing instruction carried out in a CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) class at Hiroshima University, and also reports on students' impressions on such instruction. The class was an extracurricular lecture, so students had a wide variety of educational backgrounds, reasons for class participation, and proficiency in English. In order to deal with such a variety, the author-instructor divided instructions into three phases. The first phase was to give correct or comment feedback on students' compositions. The second phase was a narrative-based instruction for each student explaining why corrections were made on their compositions. The third phase involved whole class explanation of common mistakes made by students, and the introduction of useful websites and books concerning writing. These instructions were carried out by using the "comment tool" of Microsoft Word.
Removing "information moral", we set up twenty three items concerned with personality formation from "the explanation of the junior high school course of study (December, 1998) for - technology and home economics education-". In order to clarify the degree to which the content of "A-Technology and Manufacturing" and "B-Information and Computers" are easily taught in technology education, and to find the items (excluding the information morals) involving the personality formation through computer use, the awareness of technology education teachers and junior high school guardians was surveyed by using a questionnaire. There was no large difference between the awareness of the teachers and the guardians. The following results were obtained, which were common to both the teachers and the guardians were obtained: (1) About 70 % of all items were taught more easily by "A-Technology and Manufacturing" than by "B-Information and Computers". (2) "Being able to cope with a social change independently" was found to be often raised by "B-Information and Computers" but not often raised by "A-Technology and Manufacturing". (3) Using cluster analysis, it could be seen that "Work ethic", which was often raised by "A-Technology and Manufacturing" but wasn't often raised by "B-Information and Computers", was especially vivid.
In this study, we analyzed and studied sixth grade basketball classes to investigate the significance and possibility of interactions among students in athletics classes. It was discovered that in sixth grade basketball classes, if there are at least 20 shots within four minutes of a game, it shows a high degree of achievement. If there are 30 effective vertical passes, it shows a high degree of achievement. Moreover, when the interaction was considered important, the student's gymnastics skill improved. The installation of an information bulletin board led to information sharing. The conversation related to improvement in gymnastic skills has been categorized into "advice", "encouragement", and "game plans." Students shared the learning situation. Therefore, common understanding progressed and improvement in gymnastic skills was also affected.
This research seeks to compare the home economics education in the secondary level between the Philippines and Japan. By doing this comparison, it can determine the depth of home economics education in both countries. And if there are some areas that can be further developed to improve the teaching-learning process of the subject. Basing from the data gathered, the following conclusions are derived: 1. Between both countries, there are characteristics of the time allotment, the students population per class and the curriculum. 2. The teacher in Japan has seldom satisfied with facilities and equipment in kitchen rooms. However, the teacher in the Philippines has low satisfaction of room size and number of sewing machines. 3. In the Philippines, the entrepreneurial skills of the students are honed while in Japan, it is not included in the curriculum. 4. Both countries offer almost the similar objective and philosophy by providing the students the knowledge and technical know-how in a wide range.