The purpose of this study was to examine how children's ability in solving word problems influence generation and solution of word problems. In this study, ten good fifth graders and ten not-so-good fifth graders were instructed to generate complete word problems, using some words and numerals. Subjects were also asked to solve word problems they had generated. The results were as follows : (1) Good fifth grade children generated more accurate word problems. (2) Not-so-good children made more sentence errors about relations. (3)Not-so-good children also generated many word problems, but they failed to solve most of hard problems they had generated. These results suggest that not-so-good children lack or do not utilize the appropriate knowledge necessary to integrate information which are needed to generate and solve problems.
This study suggests "Regional union school emancipation" in the place of "the optional class system" means as "life-time sports" at school. This idea has expanded from "school facility emancipation" has been discussed last two decade. Now school physical education is, running or enforced by Administration Guidance, a preparation for "life-time sports". These "life-time sports" cause some trouble and problems to school physical education. The relationship between "life long education" and "life-time sports" has not only identical thinking and charactor also means can be exchanged with the education to the sports, however some study has shown these ideal background is not basically same. Such being the case taking up the optional physical education class, a preparation for "life-time sports", is made clear by the last course of study. There are three practical issues we have to study; 1) It's values is a vague and unreliable. 2) Still there is a narrow option. 3) Dose it develope a sports habit from optional class ? (though young may be involved to commercial sports) After we studied three practical issues, we concluded the suggestion, "Regional union school emancipation", can be solved to the issues.
In order to assess lower secondary school students' understanding of the tentativeness of scientific knowledge by using the revised NSKS, the following survey was carried out. The survey asked the following questions. (1) Are there any differences among subjects' grades in mode of each statement comprising the subscales below ? (2) Which statements did lower secondary school students misunderstand ? Method : The revised NSKS was administered to 451 lower secondary school students. The instrument contains 24 statements with a Likert scale response format with five choices : strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree. The subscales consisted of the following : creative, developmental, parsimonious, and testable. 451 students comprised the sample. The sample consisted of three grades. Each mode of the statements was used to identify whether lower secondary school students understood it or not. Results : The results of the present survey are summarized as follows: (1) There was no differences among subjects' grades in mode of each statement comprising the subscales. (2) Lower secondary school students misunderstood two statements below. 1. Scientific laws and theories do not express the creativity. 2. There is an effort in science to build as great a number of laws, theories as possible.
The paper analyzed the content of "Ohio Consumer/Homemaking Curriculum 'PRACTICAL ACTION' " (1983, U. S. A) , focusing especially on the theoretical base and its framework. The results are summarized as follows. The aim of the Ohio Consumer/Homemaking Curriculum is to foster development of a fully functioning family member who takes action for the betterment of the family, workplace and society. Special stress is placed on developing the student's critical/creative thinking skills including reasoned value judgement. The curriculum also focuses on the perennial and practical problems of families and communities, because these are intrinsic motivators of adolescents. To achieve this goal, the curriculum is well designed including both the instructional process of study ('Practical Reasoning Process') and the formation ('The Organizer') which consists of four stages of sub-practical problems. This theory and framework of the 'PRACTICAL ACTION' curriculum is of value to Japanese Senior High School Home Economics Education, with regard to organizing the scope of study and contents in the new curriculum which will start in 1994.