The purpose of this paper is to clarify the principle of the integration of Civics and Social Sciences for strengthening the Counter-socialization. In this paper, the author try to analyze the Curriculum, "The Social Sciences: Concepts and Values" developed by the Center for the Study of Instruction in San Francisco. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) It is necessary for the students to take a critical thinking on the process of their socialization, in order to strengthening the Counter-socialization. 2) A critical thinking on the process of socialization for the students can be realized by analyzing the pattern of action in the various fields of society and the pattern of action in the ethnic society. 3) An open-ended formation of Values and Attitudes for the students can be realized by objectification of the norms and the pattern of action in their society before internalize them.
This paper was envisioned to discuss about the objectives of physical education and also to determine and make appropriate theoretical models on health concepts of sports activities in the school. The health concepts can not be considered appropriate to our sports education in the school. Teachers must then set the meaningful relationship in the teaching-learning process of physical education for both the components as teacher and student. We should also reduce the meaning and the reasonability from actual successful physical education. 1) We should select successful practices, and find out the "contents", "methods" and "criterion" of excellent teaching-learning process in physical education. 2) Since we and the students have a "self-oriented learning power" within ourselves, then we must discuss the quality of communication of "I" and "ourselves" not only about the other people. 3) It is more important to discuss about the problems to what is "meaningful to teachers" and those that are "meaningful to students" among the sports activities in school physical education than the "methods" of the optional systems. 4) The school and student cultures would require our teachers to exert their effort to introduce the didactic theory from the view point of the variety of communication and relationship styles.
The school being a cultural facility has specifically include sports in the "Curriculum Content." Its inclusion could also affect the proper functioning of the "Common Basic Education for Citizens." What is important could be the inclusion of the "Common Basic Education for Citizens" and the "Minimum Essential" in the structure of the curriculum contents. It could be considers as an important basis of the evaluation that should be undertaken. Also, this "Minimum Essential" seemingly lack of "Common Cognition" and "Practice" related to the "Posture" of the teacher. It could also be started that the "Optional Class System" is inappropriate since the "Action" of the teachers in the class is important. It is one of the first task to be made in order to promote the special "Meaning" that could be though of as the beginning. Based on the aforementioned statements, the main points of this research are summarized as follow: 1) In considering the importance of the principle of "Bodily Knowledge" and "Experimentalism", although the "Curriculum Content" theory and its being incorporated immediately could be considered to be valuable, the plan prepared by Izuhara which suggest the primordial importance of "Lecture" as a teaching method could not be considered as the basis of the organization of the principle. 2) In the principle of separating sports and exercise from school, being a social institution with its existence in the society and the world, it is important to take note of the importance of (1) fairness in education, (2) value to the region, and (3) closeness to the daily life activities. 3) The segregation principle of "Curriculum Content" and the "Teaching-Learning Materials" could be classify into 2. However, the "Minimum Essential" could promote the acquisition of the concept of "Commonality" and "Meaning" to the teachers and learners.
This study investigated EFL learners' reading strategy by their ways of using the list of vocabulary glosses. Forty three Japanese college students participated in this study. And they were divided into two groups (upper and lower ones). They read two passages with vocabulary (monolingual) glosses and were asked to complete each questionnaire. They were also asked to check all vocabularies they referred their meanings to in the lists while reading. T-test was employed to analyze the mean of questionnaires and the mean numbers of the vocabularies referred in the lists between two groups. Results showed that on the questionnaires of two texts, the upper group performed significantly better than the lower group. And on the referred numbers of vocabularies, significant differences were found between two groups: the lower group referred the meanings of more vocabularies than the lower group. The study's conclusion was that poor readers tended not to be able to make effective use of the glosses provided for comprehension even if they take many opportunities to refer to the meaning of vocabularies.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Social Studies programs on students' attitudes toward and beliefs about First Nations people in Canada. There were two programs: a multicultural program and an anti-racist program. The multicultural group studied examples of successful First Nations people and the efforts to take responsibilities for their own affairs. The anti-racist group studied the current situation among the majority of First Nations Canadians and then examined historical relationship between the government and First Nations people. Students' attitudes toward First Nations people were assessed by three measures of empathy/sympathy, attitude, and attribution of blame. One hundred sixty-nine grade 11 students from two secondary schools in the Lower Mainland participated in this study. The findings indicated that students in the multicultural group significantly increased their scores on the measure of attitude toward First Nations people. Students in the anti-racist group significantly improved their scores on the measures of empathy/sympathy and attribution of blame. This study supported the efficacy of both multicultural and antiracist programs on the student attitude change in different directions.
This study aims at presenting basic data for the fostering of self-educability on the teaching process includes two materials in Technology Education. Both the diagnosis test and the evaluation test on self-educability were carried out to the junior high school students at each teaching process, namely the learning through lecture and the productive practice in "Electricity" region, and then these tests were analyzed respectively. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) The productive practice is able to foster the self-educability better than the learning through lecture on the teaching process includes two materials in "Electricity" region. (2) It was shown that the self-educability of the schoolgirl and the schoolboy were equally fostered by this teaching process includes two materials in "Electricity" region. (3) It becomes clear that "Consciousness of problem", "Concentration", and "Method of study" are main factors for the fostering of self-educability on the teaching Process in "Electricity" region.
This study investigated how homemaking teachers educated the returned students. The author studied yearly changes in the situation by comparing the results of the last survey in 1987. The findings are as follows: Homemaking teachers seldom feel difficulty of instructing them, in particular only half of the junior high school teachers are conscious of it in classrooms. Currently homemaking is taught general students and returned students at the same time in the same classroom and respondents of this survey express that such mixed classroom management is desirable. Interest in homemaking class by returned students is 'higher' (responses of elementary school teachers) and 'not changed' (responses of junior high school teachers) compared to the result of the last survey. Junior high school teachers particularly feel difficulty of instructing clothing area to them. 65% of senior high school teachers recognize that experiences returned students had abroad through daily life are helpful to study homemaking, but the recognition is significantly different among schools. In conclusion it is requested that homemaking teachers should fully grasp how returned students were taught this subject in countries they lived, and then give the students individual instruction if they can't understand it well. Homemaking should be the subject which aims at helping all the students in classrooms understand different cultures.