Recent research has identified a strong link between learning styles (i.e., general approaches to language learning or problem-solving) and learning strategies (i.e., specific behaviors or actions used by the learner to improve the learning process), revealing that, when allowed to learn in their favorite way, learners often use strategies which directly reflect their own learning style. For instance, global learners usually choose holistic strategies such as guessing, scanning, and predicting, whereas analytic learners prefer strategies like contrastive analysis and rule-learning. Extroverted learners, who like group work, frequently employ social strategies, while introverted learners, who prefer to work alone, do not usually use sociallyoriented behaviors. Visually-oriented students use such strategies as listing, while auditory students like to work with tapes and practice aloud (cf. Oxford et al., 1992). Research has shown that various factors besides learning style influence second language learner's choice of learning strategies. Among them are motivation, academic orientation, sex, age, nature of task, and cultural background. It has been found that more motivated students use more strategies than less motivated students; students majoring in engineering tend to use more analytic strategies than humanities students; females use more strategies (as well as more social strategies) than males; and Asian second language learners seem to prefer rote memorization strategies, reflecting one aspect of effects of cultural background on strategy choice (cf. Oxford, 1989; Oxford & Nyikos, 1989; Oxford et al., 1988, 1993). Implications of learning strategy research findings for classroom instruction include: (a) teachers can help students identify their own current learning strategies through such verbalreport techniques as diary-keeping, interviews, and questionnaires, and (b) teachers can integrate strategy training with regular classroom activities, giving explicit directions about how to use various strategies and apply them to new situations and tasks. Research on Japanese students' learning strategies is sadly lacking. It is expected that future research will focus more on this area for obtaining intriguing insights into how Japanese foreign language learners help themselves learn.
The Purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental process of the home economics education designed for science. This study therefore analyzed the purposes, aims, characteristics and concepts of the science aspect of home economics education in the secondary schools in the United States. The home economics education was designed to help secure and to maintain the best type of home and family life by "Reorganization of Home Economics in Secondary Schools" of National Education Association. One of the aims was to prepare the pupils to become helpful and worthy as members of the family. The other was to give pre-vocational training to girls. The aims of the science of home economics education enabled the application of science to home life, science of home life and formation of thinking about science for life. These were originally for home economics education.
This report is concerned with a survey of actual conditions and consciousness of industrial arts and homemaking teachers of shimane prefecture. Further examination are made on the problems exist co-education of industrial arts and homemaking teachers. The results were as follows : There were a few certificated teachers of industrial arts and homemaking. Especially, that's tendency was recognized industrial arts and homemaking teachers in a small scale school. They had charged with one or two school subjects except industrial arts and homemaking. Significant differences in desires for charge of co-education of industrial arts and homemaking were found between a certificated teacher and no one. Teachers with experience of co-education realized more, than those without it, that there is not much differences between boys and girls in their achievement. Especially, that's tendency was recognized teachers in technological areas. It was recognized that there were significant differences in view of home economics between teachers having more traditional sex-role perception and more democratic ones. Accordingly to these results, it seems that is important for the certificated teachers of industrial arts and homemaking to teach it's school subject even in the case of both small scale school and standard one, which are the distinctions in educational environment of shimane prefecture.
In the preceding paper (part 1) it was demonstrated that domestic science education which were given to university education when they were at primary, junior and senior-high schools, had a large possibility to influence their daily life behavior on environmental preservation and resource saving. In the paper, attempts are made to examine whether there exists any significant effect of school education on clothing life behavior of university students in order to discus the necessities of school clothing education as a part of environmental education. For this purpose, the surveys are made in form of question-and-answer for students (131 males and 192 females (total 323)) registered at Kumamoto University. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Sexual difference is observed in purchasing behavior including criteria on choice of clothes; Female students behaved in harmony with environmental preservation and energy saving, suggesting strongly the achievement of clothing education at their primary, junior-and senior- high schools. (2) Male students have a tendency to put less importance on maintenance of purchased clothes as criteria on choice. This can be at least partly explained by the facts that male students had narrow experience of studying clothing life at schools and had narrow experience in actual management of clothing in daily life. Therefore, clothing education as part of environmental education should be given to male students rather than female students at Faculty of Education. (3) At the stage of purchase of clothes only few students took into consideration abandonment and then reasonable and rational clothing life behavior from purchase to abandonment should be taught thoroughly at their university.
The purpose of this study is to construct a framework for a theory on classroom research in music education from the viewpoint of phenomenology. I propose an analytical framework on classroom research, using the "normative paradigm" and "interpretive paradigm" of sociology of education. Within this analytical framework, I attempt to illustrate the differences between the phenomenological epistemology and traditional epistemology, the latter is based on existing classroom research. By reviewing the problem of epistemology, I propose that the phenomenological viewpoint is significant in constructing a theory of classroom research in music education. I emphasize the following two points: 1) A researcher should carefully examine his use of the view of the classroom and research framework, giving proper consideration to phenomenological issues. 2) It is necessary that a theory of classroom research, based on the efficientlism, be eliminated in music education.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the interest in and concern for biological teaching materials and the relevant factors in the classroom. Three hundred and fifty seventh-graders were given questionnaires on their perceptions of their interest in and concern for biological teaching materials, perceived abilities in science, attitude toward science, aptitude for classrooms in general, and self-esteem. Each questionnaire had a high degree of reliability. First, the relationships among students' interest in and concern for biological teaching materials, perceived abilities in science, and attitude toward science was considered. Second, the result of path analysis showed that an exploratory model composed of four levels namely, the classroom environment (their aptitude for classrooms) and students' personality traits (self-esteem) → attitude toward science → interest in and concern for biological teaching materials → perceived ability in science was valid. Finally, the author described the possibility that the practice in science classroom based on this path model contributed to increasing students' interest in and concern for biological teaching materials and assessment of their 'Kanshin, Iyoku, Taido' (interest, motivation and attitude, respectively) toward science lessons.
In the field of information processing education, we have been developing comprehensive support environment for students to understand programming languages and to get enough ability of program writing. We have completed to develop support system to get grammatical knowledge of programming languages, however students must understand the meaning of subject and compose the algorithm for program writing. In this paper, process of understanding algorithm in students, who tried to writeprograms, was analyzed. We checked difficulties during program writing and effectivesuggestions to go ahead. We also analyzed the effect of learning the similar cases on theprogramming process. Results of this study indicated that systematic and top-down method is useful for students to understand algorithm sufficiently and to complete adequate program. It was also clarified that checking result of trial executions during programming process is useful for correcting mistaken knowledge and uncompleted understanding, and for raising learning: effects.