This study tentatively used lecture self-evaluation by students as a measure for instructional improvement in university lectures. 60 university students specializing in psychology made a self-evaluation of a lecture on educational psychology and the lecturer changed his/her instructional method in the next lecture, responding to the evaluation results. This procedure was repeated for the entire lecture course. The following two aspects were investigated: 1) changes in lecture self-evaluation by students; and 2) association of the changes with students' degree of satisfaction and understanding of the class. The results indicated: 1) the iterative process for instructional improvement positively affected self- evaluation by students; and 2) the quality of factors that increased students' feelings of satisfaction and understanding varied along with the progress of the lecture course. Key factors were: a) in the first half of the course, motivating students to study outside of class hours and improving the lecturer's instruction, including ways of using visual aids and the lecture room environment; and b) in the latter half of the course, connecting the theory of educational psychology with students' future careers and using practical exercises, such as problem analysis and evaluation.
This study aimed to clarify the factorial structure of an effective physical education class in high schools and to examine the relationship between teachers and students by using their factorial structures. A questionnaire was developed and used which consisted of 40 items based on four hypothetical factors. These factors were based on some pre-surveys and analysis of content validity. Therefore, the questionnaire was judged to have high reliability. As regards the teacher, the following factors were identified: "ways of learning (subjectivity)", "the will to learn", "ways of learning (learning environment)", "cooperation", and "ways of learning (sociability)". In the case of students, the following factors were identified: "outcome", "enjoyment", "ways of learning (sociability)", "ways of learning (learning environment)", and "cooperation". As concerns the relation between factors for teachers and students, the factor "cooperation" was high and "ways of learning (learning environment and sociability)" were moderate. The five factors for each group were interpreted differently, and it was confirmed that to a certain degree teachers and students share an image of an effective physical education class. The future problem is to develop the learning methods so that students can enjoy learning through cooperation independently of the teacher.
The present research is an attempt to explore Japanese EFL learners' speaking ability in explanatory structure. 63 undergraduate students participated in a series of performance tests, including two types of oral performance tests and a writing performance test. Spoken and written production was transcribed into an interlanguage corpus, which was gathered for the purpose of analyzing lexical and syntactic features. An explanatory multiple regression, with the scores on each OPT by three raters on an intuitive basis as the dependent variables and four types of ratio as independent variables, yielded some explanatory relations. Based on the results, a structure equation modeling was undertaken. It was found that there did exist two types of speaking at a linguistic level. Furthermore, it provided the pedagogical implication that some knowledge of syntactic rules on clause structure and information structure was acquired through different processes, which gives us some insights into enlightened and eclectic approaches, new ones for these two types of speaking ability.
In understanding an outline of a text, it is said that reading with a specific attention to topic sentences and discourse markers is effective. However, to what degree can this approach to reading be generalized to Japanese senior high school students? In this research, the definition of text construction is that it consists of two aspects: hierarchical structures and discourse markers. The purpose of this empirical research is to clarify to what degree hierarchical structures and discourse markers have an effect on reading comprehension performance. Based on the level of performance, the pattern of the effect is also examined. The aim was to uncover fundamental perspectives on reading instruction. Four versions of the text were used in the experiment. The first text had both hierarchical structures and discourse markers. The second and third texts had either hierarchical structures or discourse markers. The final text had neither hierarchical structures nor discourse markers. A two-way ANOVA was conducted by regarding the reading comprehension performance as the dependent variable and the hierarchical structures and the discourse markers as the independent variables. The results showed that the effect of hierarchical structures was clearer than that of discourse markers. This was especially observed in the case of the three above-average groups. The most striking result was that the combination of hierarchical structures and discourse markers has an effect on reading comprehension performance. It was concluded that hierarchical structures and discourse markers should be dealt with carefully in reading instruction.
The major goal of this study is to identify the impact of the coordination of the intended curriculum to the implemented curriculum on the development of problem-solving skills in Indonesia. In order to reach the goal, this study compares Indonesia and Japan with regard to teachers' perceptions of their teaching practice and problem-solving goals, and the structural relationship of those perceptions. Three analyses of Indonesian teachers revealed the followings: (1) Indonesian teachers utilize expository teaching more frequently than problem-solving teaching. (2) Indonesian teachers place less emphasis on problem-solving processes and techniques than do Japanese teachers. (3) The prevailing teaching method of Indonesian teachers, expository teaching, does not have a significant relationship with the goals of problem-solving processes and presentation. The study suggests that Indonesian teachers' inadequacy in utilizing problem-solving teaching has a considerable impact on students' acquisition of problem-solving skills.
The purpose of this paper was to identify the principles and methods for designing mathematics lessons based on the Two-Axes Process Model of understanding mathematics. As a result of theoretical and practical studies, three principles (Ps) and three methods (Ms) were identified for designing lessons to facilitate and deepen students' understanding of mathematics, as follows: P1 - recognizing mathematics understanding as a dynamic process; P2 - setting up clear levels of understanding and learning stages at a level; P3 - incorporating students' individual constructions and social construction; M1 - making clear levels of understanding related to a certain mathematical topic; M2 - assessing and evaluating students' understanding at a readiness; and M3 - planning in detail three learning stages as a dialectic process of individual and social constructions in a lesson.