The purpose of this research is to clarify the effect of students' collaborative activity and mutual evaluation in a comprehensive seminar of a university teacher training course. In the preliminary research, collaborative activity and mutual evaluation were accepted by the students. The main research investigated how students' thoughts changed during the collaborative activity and mutual evaluation, and whether there was validity in students' mutual evaluation. Because dissatisfaction was caused by the arrangement of group members, each member's contribution in a group was evaluated by the other group members. As a result, it could be clarified that the students had accepted the method of evaluating contributions in a group. In this research, the groups were composed of three or four students. Each group discussed a problem in education, and designed a teaching idea to solve the problem. The teaching idea of each group was presented with a poster and a projector, and students evaluated other groups. Students were interested in this approach, considered the teaching ideas well and came to understand them deeply. However, when the number of students greatly exceeds 50, this method of teaching will not be feasible.
The purposes of this study were to develop a multimedia software to assist the primary school teachers with mat stunt teaching, to evaluate the contents of the software and the effects when teachers use it. As the results of analysis of questionnaire responses from 19 primary school teachers, the contents of the software were evaluated affirmatively by most teachers, but the results showed variations according to their degree of confidence in their ability in mat stunt teaching. The same tendencies were evident in the enhancing effect on self-confidence. From these results, it could be suggested that the software developed in this study was effective in enhancing self-confidence in mat stunt teaching, in particular for the teachers who had relatively little confidence in teaching.
This case study investigated how the use of "Opposing Ideas" in science lessons influences children's naive concepts and metacognitive monitoring in lessons for the "expansion of air" unit in the fourth grade of elementary school. In the study, "Opposing Ideas," which represent children's naive concepts and scientific concepts, were used as metacognitive tools to help monitor the learners' thoughts. The findings of this case study were as follows: (1) The use of "Opposing Ideas" in a setting that made children aware of their naive concepts possibly promoted the occurrence of conceptual conflicts in many children who had mistaken ideas regarding the expansion of air; (2) The use of "Opposing Ideas" after demonstrating an experiment which supported scientific concepts became an opportunity for children to modify their own mistaken ideas regarding the expansion of air; (3) The use of "Opposing Ideas" before conducting these experiments caused monitoring regarding the expansion of air to occur in many children when conducting the experiments.
The purpose of this study is to develop food and nutrition education for cultivating the ability to prepare nutritionally balanced meals in relation to thinking skills, and to examine the appropriate teaching materials needed to attain this purpose. This approach will comprise such factors as reasoning and comparison within "Cognitive System", based on Robert J. Marzano's "Model of Behavior", for cultivating the thinking skills utilized in information processing; to be more precise, this approach will be designed for facilitating comprehension of the nutritional values of "standard food", the generalization or the discrimination of the nutritional values of various foods based on reasoning and comparison with the nutritional values of "standard food", and for inferring the nutritional values of foods in nutritionally-balanced meal models, considering ways to combine foods. I think that this type of education will cultivate the thinking skills needed for systematizing food-related knowledge and for judging the nutritional values of meals in everyday life. I developed and examined a "food-nutrition sufficiency rate card" on which the nutritional values of "standard food" are indicated by the number and colors of the stickers, and based on which reasoning and comparison are possible.
In this research project the teacher evaluated the experimental records made by elementary school sixth grade student groups examining the "working of the electromagnet". We permitted learners' free communication in this investigation. We told the students the purpose of the experiment. However, we had the students devise the experimental method, and we had the students explain their experimental record. The length of the students' experiments shortened. Moreover, the students came to prepare the experimental tools efficiently. It could be revealed that this method of instruction enabled the students to develop clearer experimental plans.
Learners' negative episodes in animal dissection and the relation between their interest and motivation in teaching materials on animals and plants has been evaluated. However, it has not been investigated whether there are differences in learners' interest in animal dissection among elementary, junior high, and senior high school students. 343 fifth-grade elementary school students, 276 second-grade junior high school students, and 191 second-grade senior high school students responded to questionnaire sheets. The results were as follows. As regards students' experience of being taught to dissect animals, of dissecting animals by themselves and students' awareness of the method of dissection, senior high school students had more experience than students at the lower levels. However, the senior high school students had less intellectual urge in and motivation for animal dissection than students at the lower levels. These senior high school level students' intellectual urge declined as years passed by and therefore their motivation to carry out animal dissection similarly declined. Because their experience of being taught to dissect animals as well as their own experience of dissection increased their awareness that students have acquired knowledge about the method of dissection developed, and hence students' intellectual urge in dissection declined. This serious situation can also be accounted for by students with negative episodes in animal dissection in senior high school domestic science lessons. Provided that many students had not experienced animal dissection in science lessons at elementary or high schools. In Japan 1998, animal dissection was removed from the elementary school curriculum. In order for students to improve negative episodes in animal dissection while acquiring good eating habits and developing their outlook on life, teachers need to teach students to carry out animal dissection in elementary, junior high and senior high schools.
An investigation was carried out on 300 technology teachers (the number of valid responses was 73, 24.3%) in order to find out about their views on 'the Robot Contest' as one type of project learning in technology education. The result of this investigation showed that 23.3% of teachers have experience of 'the Robot Contest' (experience group), and that 35.6% of teachers have a concrete plan to implement using of it (plan group). The proportion of teachers who don't have either experience or a plan was 41.1%. Also, the plan group expected the effect of promoting students' autonomy. However, they were concerned that they would need a lot of time for the project. On the other hand, 52.1% of teachers feel positively about 'the Robot Contest' (positive group), while 28.7% of teachers feel negatively about it (negative group). Also, the positive group expected that it would promote students' creativity. However, they also worried about the difficulty of evaluating group activity.
The present article aims to find out the new directions of the study of Japanese language pedagogy and oral presentation at the academic society of Japanese language education through analysis of the articles and abstracts on oral presentation in the academic journal titled Nihongo Kyoiku published during the period of 2002 (vol. 112) to 2006 (vol. 131). The content of articles is characterized by the overemphasis on the theoretical study of Japanese linguistics, and the underemphasis on Japanese language education. As for the categories of both practical study and empirical research, the articles on Japanese language education are the greatest in number, in addition to oral presentation. Overall, the following areas of study have been most focused on: teaching Japanese to young children, Japanese for academic purposes, teacher training, teaching methods, second language acquisition, pedagogical grammar, and sociolinguistic research. Henceforth, the areas of psychology and multicultural education will be more emphasized in the study of Japanese language pedagogy in the future. Interestingly, Japanese language teaching/learning has been strongly supported by Japanese volunteers who have helped Asian refugees, Japanese returnees from China and nikkeijins from South America (mainly, Peru and Brazil) settle down in Japanese society. The Japanese Government (Bunkacho) has also helped them learn survival Japanese and Japanese culture in many districts in Japan. The Ministry of Education had to help their children learn Japanese for academic purposes in schools. This led to the development of Japanese language textbooks and the curriculum of content-based instruction. Moreover, the Bunkacho published the guidelines for Japanese language teacher training and tried to reform it radically in 2000 in accordance with school education. This led to the heated discussion that Japanese language pedagogy should be established instead of applied Japanese linguistics.