The purpose of this study is to search a way to make a comprehensive learning in "Housing and Community Environment" area of High School Home Economics. This study used four steps as follows: 1) to review concepts about learning of 'Housing and Community Environment"; 2) to restructure and plan the syllabus of practical teaching; 3) to practice actually classroom teaching in high school; and 4) to evaluate and discuss the result of the practice. As a result of the practice, by using a wide range of experimental and participatory learning, the high school students have learned extensive knowledge and formed independence of thought on living environments. A problem to be solved for the syllabus plan is to have more broad experience involved in the society, and many practices should be done in schools.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the general methods to initiate reforms using ball games as teaching materials from the normal ball games as sports, and to confirm the problems that were left behind. According to the 4 separate periods of the research history of the Gakko-Taiiku-Kenkyu-Doshikai, I investigated the problems, the characteristics, and the typical practices in each periods respectively. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) This research has been made to establish the attitude of daily practice in physical education, for all students, for the adaptation of the growth situations in each student, and for enhancing the interest of each student in all sports. 2) This research has developed some methods to initiate reform in sports as teaching materials by cutting some factors that leads to obstructions of mastering a normal ball game or minimizing these factors. 3) This research has envisioned to make new ball games according to obstructions of common sports skills in all kinds of ball games. 4) This research has been made to introduce sports skills instruction for all students and to develop democratic classrooms by introducing activities of group learning. This research, nevertheless, has not yet established the method of how to present to students about the components of ball games and sports strategies, and what are necessary to acquire some basic skills to experience pleasurable activities in ball games.
The objective of this study was to clarify the validity of the Hopfield models by which students' conceptions were represented. In this research, 61 junior high school students were asked to answer a paper-and-pencil test to classify rocks. The Hopfield models were constructed individually according to their answers. The students' answers to other problems were predicted by using the same models. The validity of the models was verified by the correspondence of the predictions with the actual students' answers. The correspondence was recognized by more than 2/3 of the models. It was considered that the models showed students' conceptual models for the classification of rocks. Since the students' answers could be predicted by the models, the use of models would be useful for the learning of scientific classification based on the student's recognition.
The objective of this paper is to find out a new meaning of sensibility of music and to specifically propose a new direction of music learning. As for a new meaning of sensibility, I found Einbildungskraft in the philosophy of I. Kant to be appropriate. Einbildungskraft exists in the bottom of sensibility and it has the same meaning as thinking ability. How should we facilitate the growth of the children's sensibility of music? Firstly, I propose that they should be able to acquire awareness of the worth of music by themselves and so they will have their own sense of music. Secondly, we have to satisfy the children's intellectual desire and develop new curricula based on their mysterious world.
Since 1970, a predominant trend in the world of second language teaching, namely the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), has developed. CLT has had an enormous influence on the theoretical aspects of second language teaching, but there has not been much evidence of change on its practical application. In the academic area of English language education research, the major focus has been on the methods of instruction, the teaching content and political aspects in terms of CLT, but little attention has been paid to how English language education is carried out in an organized manner among the personnel of English language departments in schools. The aim of this study is to investigate the relations between the organizational characteristics of English language departments in public upper secondary schools and their commitment to CLT in order to understand the organizational characteristics appropriate to CLT practices. As a result, the following conclusions were reached: (1) there are six different organizational characteristics among schools; (2) the quality of CLT practiced in each school is different; (3) the organizational characteristics which seem to be effective to CLT practices are leadership by school managers, learning opportunities in schools and shared objectives and efforts towards its implementation.
In this study, in order to understand the status of students' emotions in Industrial Arts at the Junior High School, the researchers developed a questionnaire. From the results of our investigation, the ensuing matters turned out to be evident: 1) In Industrial Arts, the students feel "pleasure" most out of the six elements of emotions such as "pleasure," "sorrow," "fear," "dislike," "surprise" and "anger." 2) The girl students feel the other five emotional elements, which excludes "pleasure," more strongly than the boys. 3) The students feel "dislike" and "anger" more strongly in the juniors' class and far more in the seniors' class. 4) In the field of Basic Information, the students feel "pleasure" strongly, while in Cultivation they feel "fear" and "dislike" strongly. As for the comparison between boys and girls in each field, the boy students feel "pleasure" more strongly in the field of Machinery, and the girls do in Basic Information. However, in Cultivation, there is no gender difference at all. 5) In the guidelines of Wood-Processing field, the students feel "pleasure" and "dislike" more strongly in case of mostly-directed design than in free design.
In Japan, from Taisho era to early Showa era, the new educational movement based on progressivism became very popular. As to music education, the change from Singing to Music appeared during this period and at the same time the systematic and logical establishment of it as a subject came to be gradually considered. That is to say, the music education in the Taisho era was practised according to essentialism. At the Primary School Attached to Nara Women's Higher Normal School, there were two different types of music class; the music class taught by a music teacher, Jun Ikuo, and the music learning taught through the integrated learning. However, there existed opposing opinions between Takeji Kinoshita, whose thoughts were based on progressivism, and Jun Ikuo, which is based on essentialism. In this movement, Shigekazu Tsurui, in-charge of the integrated learning, taught children to master the learning contents, while promoting the children's voluntary learning on the viewpoint of the child-centered thoughts. The children's musical composition taught by Tsurui was considered to be epoch making since he tried to find the point of contact between progressivism and essentialism.