Thirty hours of practical instruction in making clothing was carried out using the subject matter 'making an apron' for third year students in junior high school and the change in their attitude toward making clothing was investigated using a questionnaire. CAI (computer-assisted instruction) was also used in the first 2 hours, and its educational effect was examined by means of essay questions immediately after the CAI. (1) On the whole, the students' attitudes toward making clothing were more positive after completing the 30h course. This change was closely related to higher levels of achievement in the affective domain. However, male students did not exhibit a noticeable change in attitude. Most students responded more positively to the questionnaire item concerning designing as a result of implementing CAI, compared to other questionnaire items, even after completing the 3Oh course. (2) The analysis by means of essay questions showed that the CAI was generally effective for developing an interest in making clothing and that the students developed many fairly positive opinions associated with the affective domain.
In 1905-12, the books on physical simple experiments written by Hermann Hahn (1857-1929), who was a physics teacher at Dorotheenstadtischen Realgymnasiums in Berlin, were the precious materials in order to know the then state of simple experiments and the relation between that and pupil's experiment in Germany. The purpose of this study is to make clear the contents of H. Hahn's experiment books, his ideas behind it and influence to Japan. According to this, the findings of this study are as follows: (1) Bernhard Schwalbe (1841-1901), who was a central figure to advocate the promotion of physical simple experiment in the late nineteenth century Germany, had a different idea with H. Hahn, who succeeded to B.Schwalbe's desire after his death in regard to method, apparatus and extent of application of physical simple experiment. (2) The physical simple experiment in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Germany was influenced by that in advanced nations as England, France and the like. On the other hand H. Hahn's books on physical simple experiments exerted a influence upon Japan. About half the number of physical simple experiments in H. Hahn's books were the same things with that of the first chapter in "Butsurigakukogijikkenho" (1911) written by Sonosuke Mori (1876-1953).
The aim of the present study was to examine how the parents' life style might affect the students' attitude toward the women's social role as workers and their domestic role as family persons who take care of housework and the other family members, such as caring for the infant and the old in the family. The survey was conducted from May through June in 1992 with the education and technology students of Kumamoto University as subject. Our findings are as follows: Their awareness of role sharing between men and women was different depending upon whether the mother was working and whether the father was taking his share of housework. We should, thus, teach the children while they are in primary and secondary school that it is significant that the women work outside the home and the men participate in housework.
Micro teaching practices (MT) were carried out with one hundred and fifteen female students of first grade at the training school for kindergarten teachers. They were divided into fourteen groups. One student-teacher selected in each of the groups gave two different lessons for about eight kindergarteners. We found that environmental arrangement in teaching skills was improved by giving MT repeatedly, but that the other skills were not improved progressed. However, as a result of researching the relations between teaching skills and recognition of the results of MT, it is found that teaching skills were improved by feeling how much the student teachers learnt by themselves and how self-motivated they were, but that teaching skills were made worse by understanding to the difficulties faced during the actual practice. We think it is important for beginners to enjoy their nursing.
This study aims at investigation how much elementary school teachers know about learning theories(1,2 vide infra)and what they think about applying learning theories to the classes ((1), (2), (3) vide infra).The results of questionnaire are as follows. (1) Teachers in particular young ones,had little knowledge of learning theories. (2) There were few teachers who knew new learning theories. In order to improve the educational situation, there are three action plans for researchers. (1) Researchers should introduce learning theories to teachers. (2) Researchers should introduce more practical examples of the learning theories to teachers. (3) Researchers should explain learning theories in understandable words for teachers. When the researcher visited elementary schools and explained learning theories to teachers, their reactions were as follows. (1) There were very few teachers who knew learning theories. (2) Many teachers were interested in STS education and Constructivist's Views. This study suggests that it is necessary for researchers to introduce learning theories to teachers and that it is necessary to establish the close relationship between researcher and teacher.
In the course of physical education class hours, it is often observed that a strong competitive consciousness to win the game by all means dominates and then victors' skills and only the final consequences are overestimated. It causes the feelings of some students being left out of the company because of his / her inferior skills. The present author's aim is to overcome such consciousness and to create a new type of class management, picking up table-tennis classes at his university. Students' learning was constructed by the form of competition so as for skill-learning and companionship to progress positively. The game was transformed from individual-competition to group-competition and the ranking was decided by the gains and the loss of the group. The skills and building up of companionship made it possible to learn the four skills scientifically and to elucidate the improving points. And by activating "mutual teaching-learning", all the members of the group tried to acquire the skills for themselves, by which members' team-mateship was deepened without any consciousness of inferiority of skills. By practicing this type of class management, strong victory consciousness disappeared, each student could play the game actively, everyone tried hard to master the skills, so that high level games were performed. From the above, it was confirmed that this method would enable us to realize an innovating class management,removing the conception of overestimating victory.
EFL achievement advocated by the new course of study is often referred to as communicative English abilities (CEA) as part of autonomous learning abilities, without which students would find it difficult to cope with the changing needs of our society. Theoretically, such CEA comprises three domains: cognitive, behavioral and affective. Of the three domains, it is the affective that plays a pivotal role in developing positive attitudes not only towards communicative activities, but also towards the target language and culture. It has often been insufficiently argued that the affective domain should be excluded from the construct of achievement itself, partly because attitudes and motivation in that domain do not easily lend themselves to scientific measurement, mainly because the concept of attitudes tends to be used as a means to indoctrinate students in a certain ideology or to discipline them. After all, however, the affective domain is inseparable from the cognitive domain or from the behavioral domain. The very process of planning lessons presupposes some kind of an ideal achievement structure with affective factors in it. Furthermore, experience tells us that those affective factors can be developed through well planned lessons. Therefore, I would like to argue that the affective domain should be incorporated into the construct of achievement. Besides, such a born-again achievement construct can be put in historical perspective. In fact, according to Hirooka's interpretation of post-war educational reform movements in terms of a spiral or cyclical structure with four distinct periods, the present day English language education has entered the fourth period in which the importance of affective factors in carrying out communication is being reassessed and recognized.