This study was undertaken to faces up to the reality that activities of problem solving are used only as the method, with missing to nurture the humanity, to deliver knowledge from teacher to children. The objective of the study is to take back the educational specifity of problems solving activities toward the education for humanity. The questionnaire was used to make clear the reality, especially what Japanese children lack. Through the questionnaire, the lacks and school education were reconsidered from the view point of curriculum research and development. The following points were discussed in the process; how to nurture each child as a man who can live in the future with strong will, what the importance of self-discovery and self-realization are, and what, with the relation to needs of children, the problem solving activities based on the humanity is.
This is a basic research study to make clear the cognitive process in child's learning behavior. An analysis of child's behavior and psychophysiological activities is used as a means to this end. The study was undertaken to measure plethysmograph and respiratory cycle in 13 undergraduate students, in place of children, as induced by observation of natural phenomena to obtain the necessary information for problem solving. The experiment was undertaken using two kinds of observations, one was with a change of viewpoint and the other was without a change of viewpoint. Q factor analysis was used to analyze the indexes induced by them. The results are summarized as follows; (1) Three factors were induced from the observation with a change of viewpoint and two factors were induced from it without a change of viewpoint. (2) The former factors were consisted of the latter factors and another one. (3) They are considered as follows; one is corresponded to a mental composure, another is to a cognitive and/or affective tension in new situation, and the other is to a change of viewpoint to obtain the necessary information for problem solving.
The rational of an elementary school science and educational characters of learnings through TV programs were discussed. The educational characters of learnings through TV programs have different educational specifity from science instruction doing in real time and space. Those are concerned to nurtue child's ability of observing, thinking about and dealing with natural matter and phenomena. As each ahs an each own special quality about it, the science instruction in real time and space and learnings through TV programs abould be combined to product the multiplication about it. These philosophical assumptions were discussed through educational practice, and one basic theory was proposed about an instructional design to organize learnings through TV programs in elementary school science.
In music education, the phrase "appreciating the beauty of music" is a commonplace. And teaching-learning activities of music appreciation consist merely of the teacher's giving the pupils a musical piece and the pupils' receiving it passively. How, then, can the pupils perceive and appreciate the beauty of the piece; in other words, can the true "learning" be achieved through such a simple process? The first thing that the teacher must do about this is, as we mentioned in the last paper, to learn what pieces the students can appreciate independently without any special instruction by the teacher. With this knowledge, the teacher can make an effective selection of musical pieces which have a high educative value. This paper concerns the results of the experimental research in which we have reconfirmed the validity of the method we used in order to see whether some musical piece can be appreciated by the learners without any help of the teacher. The subjects of this research were pupils of primary, junior high and senior high school and college students majoring music education.
PURPOSE: Some of the criticisms on usual cooking practice were: 1) students did not commit the practice actively; 2) they could not participate in the whole process of cooking practice but only a part of it; and 3) they usually cooked alone in their houses. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chain learning method which was supposed to avoid the criticisms on usual cooking practice. METHOD: Characteristics of chain learning method used in this study were as follows: one of the students cooked in front of the others; others observed the way he cooked and helped him whenever necessary; thus, all the students could observe the whole process of cooking. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed 1) the favorable attitude toward the cooking practice, 2) higher levels of interest for cooking, especially on the items related to the cooking procedures and cooking time.
The purpose of this study on Kaseika-Club in K Senior High School is to make a clubmember have a current understanding through the corroborating experiments and actual observations in their clubworks. Subjects of club-works were selected from analysis of some of practical problems (health and nutrition field) in lifelong education of clubmember's mothers. Our instruction of the main experiments of Kaseika-Club were as follows: 1. Hygienical (Bacteriological) experiments: (a) Sterilization, (b) Isolation and culture of E.coil group and general microorganisms from hand, hair, water and various foods, (c) Culture and fermentation by yeast. 2. Blood pressure : (a) Measurements of blood pressure of club-members at various conditions in a day. (b) Measurements of blood pressure of their parents. 3. Urine tests. Club-members and their parents. All of club-members showed strong interests in the methods and techniques used in this study as useful for daily life, and they were awakened to a significance of life-long education.