This paper discusses the relationship between "Whole-class discourse" and "Local discourse" and describes how students make sense of science through local discourse. The following two trends were identified: 1. Many students engaged in Local discourse. 2. Local discourse helped students resolve cognitive conflicts. The results of this study show how understanding of science can be enhanced through active local discourse among students. The whole class became a kind of science community when a connection was made between Local discourse and Whole-class discourse.
With regard to the 'manufacturing class' in technology education, which comprised pragmatic learning activities involving product design and manufacturing, teachers' educational guidance before the manufacturing stage played an important role in supporting students' learning activity. The purpose of the present paper is an attempt to develop a basic model of educational guidance for the classroom by analyzing students' thinking before they begin to make a product. A questionnaire on this topic was administered to 234 junior high school students and the data were examined using covariance structure analysis. As a result, an intercausal relationship model was found between the following elements: (1) students' thought when using tools for processing; (2) consideration of the finished product; (3) the efficiency of their own working process; (4) thought about materials' thickness and forms. This model fitted well with the data collected in the study. This intercausal relationship model of students' thinking would be useful reference material for developing good educational guidance and structured teaching materials.
The purpose of this study is to explain the features of instruction in Chinese elementary science education through the comparison of the ways of thinking of elementary school teachers in Japan and China. A 16-item questionnaire was administered to teachers in Japan and China in order to measure four constructs: "improving problem solving ability"; "improving knowledge"; "child-centered classes"; "the emphasis on children's thinking in experiments". Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (multiple group analysis) indicated that the "problem solving ability" and "the knowledge" are the influential factors on "child-centeredness" in China. On the other hand, in Japan, "problem solving ability" is the influential factor on "children's thinking".
The purpose of this article is to clarify the minimum requirements for the construction of a social studies curriculum by analyzing the recent curriculum revision of geography, history and civics in Bavaria. This article shows that the construction of a social studies curriculum requires at least the substantial conversion of these three courses from educating uncritical political judgement based on accepting the existent state to indirectly educating critical political judgement based on objectifying the existent society including the state.
This study was designed to analyze the effect of the flight length of a served volleyball on the performance of the receiver of the service, in order to attain useful information for coaching overhand floater serve. A cinematographic image taken with a video camera during a game was reflected on the screen of a personal computer. After digitizing the middle point of players' feet, the flight length of the served ball from server to receiver was calculated using the Two- dimensional Direct Linear Transformation Method. Successful serves tend to have a flight length of around either 17 or 21 meters. The floater serve well back from the service line should be effected by an increase in air resistance that causes the ball to move in an erratic trajectory as it approaches the receiver. This in turn requires the serve from behind the service line to have an appropriate initial velocity and angle of launch.
This study has two main purposes: (1) to examine the teaching methodology of social studies based on problem-solving (I describe it as problem-solving social studies) from the viewpoint of school stages and learning fields; (2) to clarify its structure. I classified problem-solving social studies into six categories following the Japanese course of study, and examined the teaching methodology of each one. I then studied their structure mainly with regard to school stages. Finally, I pointed out that the teaching methodology of problem-solving social studies has a structure which moves from recognition of problem-solving to the ability to objectify it as students move through school stages.
The aim of this paper is to indicate the theory behind lesson organization in the issue-centered approach in the United States. This approach has two types. One is the "Free Discourse" type, exemplified by Antell and Harris's Current Issues in American Democracy, and the other approach is carried out by setting an analytical framework, as exemplified by, for example, Oliver and Shaver (1966). By comparing these two approaches, the importance of including an analytic framework in lessons is strongly supported.
This study attempts to suggest some principles of up-to-date issues of curriculum re-organization using an empirical research method. To identify the hidden structure of the school curriculum, this study conducted both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in adults' perceptions of the usefulness of each subject. The following hidden structure was revealed: (1) Japanese adults have two interdependent constructs in terms of curriculum usefulness; 'acquisition of general knowledge and understanding'; and 'acquisition of general skills and techniques'. (2) In addition to and independently from these two constructs, Japanese adults have a construct of 'scientific and mathematical thinking'. (3) The effect of the unique usefulness of each subject exceeds the effect of the three hidden constructs in characterizing each subject's usefulness. This study suggests the importance of this hidden structure when considering curriculum re-organization.
This paper tried to clarify recent trends, subjects for further discussion and future prospects of studies in Home Economics Education from the viewpoint of Curriculum Research and Development through examining the articles included in The Bulletin of Japanese Curriculum Research and Development and The Journal of the Japan Association of Home Economics Education from the first issue to the present. The following points became clear: 1) when the Japan Association of Home Economics Education was first founded, Home Economics Education theory was explored and investigated from a historical point of view. Especially, it is of particular importance that the school systems at the elementary through senior high level adopted program of Home Economics for both sexes; 2) studies on Home Economics Education focusing on the USA have contributed to broadening horizons, expanding fields, and transforming approaches to the subject in Japan. 3) it has been necessary to nurture the practical abilities of daily lives in Home Economics Education in recent years since the family and social living environment of children have been rapidly changing and evolving; 4) studying about classroom teaching makes explicit learning that connects real experiences of children in their lifeworld to school education; 5) regarding teacher education, fostering teachers' competence is the major research concern. Although many problems still remain to be solved, new visions and designs are developing.