Fundamental verbs are very difficult for Japanese students of English to master, though such verbs are very often employed in native speakers' conversation. In Japan, the grammar translation method does not help students use these words properly, because the notions of the verbs are often made little of. Native speakers do not employ these words from a dictionary but as notions. Therefore, the best way to teach such fundamental verbs is not to teach each meaning but to make students grasp the notions of them. To get the notion of a word is a very helpful way of mastering a language. In this thesis, GIVE, TAKE, COME, GO, and some of their idioms are examined and the effectiveness of using notions to learn English is discussed.
In the previous report we showed that it is possible to teach children to recognize by taste the amount of salt good for their health. In this paper we investigated the use of a salt meter easy to use for children in the preparation of miso soup and examined it's effectiveness. The results were as follows: 1) Although there was the same recipe, there were differences in the salute densities of the miso soup prepared by sixth grade. 2) An instruction to cook miso soup ran as follows: ・The ratio of miso to water has to be calculated according to the salt density of miso used. ・To be necessary quantity of water a surplus has to be added to compensate for the loss on account of evaporation. ・Ingredients of the soup such as vegetables should not be boiled too long. 3) By the use of salt meters children gained practical knowledge about the correct amount of salt in healthy food.
The purpose of this study was to examine how understanding processes of word problems in good sixth graders were different from those in poor sixth graders, based on the relationships between problem understanding and problem generation. Fifty-five 6 th graders were asked to draw line diagrams in Test I and to generate word problems, using some words and numerals in Test II. The main results were as follows :Poor graders could not draw correct line diagrams of problems in which criterion amounts were less than the comparison amounts. However, poor graders generated problems with complex structure of the second use of the rate, while they did few problems with that of the third use of the rate. These results are discussed in terms of incomplete knowledge structure of word problems which the poor students possessed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative significance of certain determinants that contribute to under-achievement of the pupils. The subjects were 168 elementary school teachers and 104 elementary school principals. They were asked to evaluate 15 determinants that contribute to under-achievement, on a five-point scale. The main results are as follows; 1) According to the evaluation by the teachers, the determinants which most greatly contributed to under-achievement were "unfavorable home circumstances" and "teaching material overload", in this order. On the other hand, "unskillful teaching" and "un- favorable home circumstances" were the greatest determinants, in this order, according to the responses of the principals. 2) Both teachers and principals regarded the determinant "bad luck" as comparatively insignificant. 3) With the determinants "unskillful teaching", "bad relationship between the pupil and the teacher", "bad relationship between the pupil and the parents", "the parents' indifferences to education", and "bad luck", the principals regarded these as more greatly contributing to under-achievement than did the teachers. With the factors "teaching material overload" and "the difficulty of teaching materials", the teachers regarded these as more significant than did the principals. 4) Differences in evaluation due to the number of the years of experience in teaching (teachers) or administration (principals) were observed for some determinants.
With simultaneous instruction we can't fully expect to teach pupils according to their individual abilities and speed of understanding. To overcome this difficulty, we have introduced STUDY BOX (individual learning apparatus ). In continuation with the papers (1), (2) and (3),we have made a follow-up on the effects of curative measures by STUDY BOX; and in the present paper, we have followed up the research. As a result, we have found that the study using STUDY BOX is effective to cure errors. Moreover, we can detect through follow-up examinational few pupils who need more individual instruction. Consequently, we are able to give these pupils a thorough individual instruction.
The aim of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of death education curriculum in reducing death anxiety. The Death Anxiety Scale and Death Attitude by Hardt were administered before and after 3 class sessions at elementary school (3×45 minutes) 8 class sessions at Kumamoto university (8×100 minutes) and the YMCA special School (8×90 minutes) . The percentage of children and students whose attitude toward death become more positive was increased, the percentage whose attitude had not changed and who avoided any mention of death was decreased. School children (5th and 6th grade) and students obtained Death Anxiety Scale mean scores (± SD) of 5.75 (±2.26), 5.15 (±2.19), 7.76 (±2.77) and 11.8 (±2.11) respectively, and the pretest to posttest decreased was 0.72, 0.70, 0.64 and 0.16 respectively (t-test NS). A few children and students posttest scores were increased. This suggested that increased awareness of feeling about death may be accompanied by anxiety before resolution of these feeling.