This study aims to study the structural features of the recognition objective of tactics and techniques in physical education. First, this study reviewed previous studies carried out by Iwata and Ishida and found a lack of discussion of the hierarchy of tactics and techniques as a limitation of their studies. To solve this issue, this study examined structural characteristics of the recognition of how tactics and techniques were considered while referring to the knowledge of movement theory in sports. This study found out that the recognition objective aimed at by a teacher in a class had three aspects: tasks, facts, and methods. They had a structure related to each hierarchy of tactics and techniques. Additionally, structural characteristics are modeled in this study. It is thought that organizing recognition activity on the basis of the hierarchical structure of tactics allows a teacher gradually to achieve a systematic recognition as a unit objective.
A scientific perspective based on scientific creativity was introduced in elementary school science after the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Course of Study implemented in 1998. With regard to the Tentativeness of Scientific Knowledge of the junior high school students who learned the science curriculum in the elementary school, I carried out the research to clarify the reality of miscomprehension in every grade. To investigate the Tentativeness of Scientific Knowledge, this study conducted three questionnaire surveys of 158 junior high school 1st year, 158 second year, and 124 3rd year. For questionnaire items, junior high school version of the transformable NSKS test was employed. A junior high school went on a junior high school targeted for the 1st and 2nd year, 158 people and junior high schools for 3rd year for an actual condition survey of understanding 158 people a year. The NSKS test consists of 4 scales- Scientific creativity, development, testability, and parsimonious (simplicity) -with 3 sub-scales respectively. The results are as follows. 1) A junior high school students couldn’t judge the understanding and non-understanding of scientific creativity. 2) About scientific development and testability, all junior high school students could understand. 3) As for the numerical minimum nature of the scientific theory of concise nature, all junior high school students could not understand.
In foreign countries, “teacher in-service education” is emphasized to encourage girls to learn science. Girls’ dislike of science is also a pressing problem in Japan, and studies with regard to teacher in-service and pre-service education are needed. First, in this study, gender differences in pre-service teachers’ feelings toward science learning and their knowledge concerning gender in science learning became clear. Then a lesson about “science learning and gender differences” was developed and practiced in a teacher training course in order to promote pre-service teachers’ understanding about the actual conditions of the gender differences in science learning and the factors which are influential and in order to make them recognize the necessity of encouraging girls to learn science. Pre-service teachers’ understanding about gender differences was promoted by this lesson almost without regard to the sex of the pre-service teachers. However there were some pre-service teachers who didn’t recognize the necessity of thinking how to teach science to improve girls’ science learning in the future.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the historical development of “Thematic Units” in Japanese language education. The author investigated the thoughts and practices of eight theorists who suggested “Thematic Units”. This study examined two perspectives: one was the students who were targets for achieving the goal and, the other was the educational activities and textbooks used for “Thematic Units”. The findings of this study show that goals in the first perspective, themes of students’ life, and then the acquisition of language arts/technology were stressed. Therefore, “Thematic Units” were incorporated even for students who had difficulty learning Japanese language. The attempt to integrate modern texts with classical texts especially gave a significant meaning of unifying language culture. With these transitions, “Thematic Units” resulted in achieving students’ motivations, their language acquisition, and improvement of their language life and of their critical thinking. However, there are still several issues that need to be considered such as; At which educational level “Thematic Units” should be incorporated?, How to unify the themes?, and What is the evaluation process going to be?
This study summarizes and discusses the changes to Kanji character teaching in the educational magazine “Hito” based on the lineage in “Nippongo Kanji Characters, 7th Edition”. The importance of systematic Kanji character education regarding the private education research movement included the Japanese language policy movement known as “reaction” and the movement promoting the establishment of “the Table of Chinese Characters in Common Use” was recognized before the 1970’s from the time preceding the 1970’s when “Hito” was founded. Under these circumstances, “Hito” attempted to organize the systematic Kanji character education practice. From the 1970’s through to the early years of the 1980’s, Susumu Okada supported Tohdoh Akiyashu’s study to develop the systematization of Kanji character education. Additionally, the Miyashita Hisao Group from the end of the 1980’s through to the 1990’s supported Shirakawa Shizuka’s study for the development of the systematization of the Kanji character education. The beginning of Okada’s teaching focused on the classification method of the Kanji families based on radicals. However, it indicated an issue. On the other hand, the teaching from the late time of Miyashita was based on the knowledge of conventional Kanji character education and made it possible to overcome this problem by supporting Shirakawa’s Kanji Research.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological transformation processes in children resulting from a throwing training program implemented in physical education classes. Eight fourth-grade primary school children were selected for semi-structured interviews, and they were analyzed using Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). The findings of this study lead to the development of 14 concepts, 4 categories (motivation; reflection on the throwing process; self-confidence; generalization of movements), and 4 sub-categories within them. This study concluded that “motivation” arising from the understanding of throwing instructions and teaching materials promotes “reflections on the throwing process,” which in turn, increases“ self-confidence.” Moreover, it appears that the increased“ self-confidence” in children improves “motivation” and the“ generalization of movements”.
The Learning process in this study was systematically composed by three kinds of “Stepping up Task Game”, which were extracted from the tactics of baseball. The learning process was given to 5th grade children of elementary school (abbre.TG group). The ordinary learning process was composed from tasks becoming clear throughout a baseball game in the class, and then applied to other 5th grade children (abbre. NG group). This study compared the effects of individual skill in these two processes. The findings suggest that the effects of “Stepping up Task Games” might increase individual skills, teamwork and the recognition level test of tactical action. In addition, it is effective as teaching material to make elementary school children improve their attitudes toward physical education class for the upper grades in elementary school.