The purpose of the present paper is to clarify children's conception or their images of the electric current and its changes with age through the reasons they give for the question: why does a flashlight bulb light up in a closed circuit containing a dry cell? The subjects, the third to the ninth grade pupils, were required to fill out a multiple- choice questionnaire. The content of each item extended to the connotative concept of the electric current. The results showed that the subjects held different images as to the electric current, e.g., that electric particles collided with each other, and that electric particles collided with particles of a filament in the flashlight bulb. The changing process of the subjects' images of the current was also indicated in the paper.
Formerly using an LP matrix expression showed that we could clarify the learning situation of function concept in the instruction to the total class (H. Sakata and T. Matsumoto, 1984) based on this, we had a diagnosis to the error recognition and used an LP matrix expression to estimate the result of our cure by "a careful instruction to the total class" and "individual learning". From such cure, our study tries to find how the learning process pupil varies.
Examining the concept of the sovereign right through its historical theories and the character of English People who have been unfamiliar with written Constitutions,we catch a glimpse of the historical continuance of their unwritten Constitution, King (or Queen), Parliament (the House of Lords and the House of Commons), Cabinet System and the Rule of Law (common law), and so on. Although today the House of Commons has been strengthening its power under Universal Adult Suffrage with limiting the Prerogative Power of the King. He has been still playing an important role on all political and social fields. So from the social-psychological aspect in their legal mind, it seems to us that Dicey's Theory, "Sovereignty of Parliament (King or Queen in Parliament)" consists of two parts. The one (King) reigns this land as a symbol of an integrate part of this land and as the "dignified parts" of sovereignty, and the other (Parliament, involved the Cabinet) has almost its substantial executive power as the "efficient parts" of it.
It seems that a direction is generated in child's thinking while he is watching a science TV program. This study attempts to make it clear. The hypothesis is following: The direction is generated by a conceptual conflict which is caused by discorepancy of thinking process. The objective of this research is to make clear the conceptual conflict in watching a science TV program. In this research, subjects were ten boys of 5th-grade in elementary school, who had learned through science TV programs for one consecutive year. EEG is adopted as the index for analyzing the conceptual conflict. And TV notes were analyzed in order to research child's understanding. The main results were as follows. 1) The science TV program was sufficiently understood. 2) In accordance with logical structure of that program, a direction was generated in child's thinking. 3) A variety of conceptual conflict was found in each child. 4) The scenes of conceptual conflict which depended on the logical structure of that program were extracted. 5) It was suggested that the conceptual conflict could be analyzed with EEG.
This study is situated in the study to make clear the formation and the development of children's logic. The objectives of this study are to get knowledges about children's logic in their recall activities after watching science TV programs. The subjects were ten boys of 5th grade in elementary school, who had learned through science TV programs for one consecutive year. In treatment conditions, they watched a TV program, and then were presented 7 key-scenes of the program. In each key-scene, they were asked on recalling of the next sequences of the contents. The answers were analyzed. The findings were as follows. (1) The number of subjects who could recall were little difference in each key-scene. The number of scenes which subjects could recall were also little difference in each key-scene. (2) Scenes in the next sequences of key-scenes were explained as recalling scenes. (3) In all recalled scenes to 7 key-scenes, there were some distinctive scenes which were frequently recalled. (4) Frequently-recalled scenes were divided by two characteristic natures of the view point for their recall. One was the scenes correspond to the objective of the program. Another was them depend on the logical relation between scenes.
The objective of this study is to make clear the viewpoints for evaluation of learner's images induced by watching science TV program, and of their activities on enrichment learning induced by watching that program, in order to search for possibility and limitation of direct teaching through TV program. In this study, subjects were ten boys of 5th-grade in elementary school, who had learned through science TV programs for one consecutive year. Each subject in treatment conditions watched a science TV program. After that, in the field of enrichment learning, they expressed their own images induced by the content of that program and engaged in the activities of problem solving by their ideas on the images. Their whole activities were observed and recorded by the VTR. Their images and activities were analyzed in this study. The main results were as follows. (1) The learner's activities were based on their images induced by the content of the TV program. (2) Two viewpoints are obtained for evaluation of the learner's images induced by watching TV program. One is relation between the images and the content of the program, and the other is enlargement of the images as their enrichment activities. (3) Moreover, two viewpoints are obtained for evaluation of the learner's activities on enrichment learning. One is whether the activities are done as the process of problem solving, and the other is continuation of the activities.
The objective of this study is to clarify learner's logical thinking in teaching-learning process of science education. A science TV program was used as the material to analyze learner's logical thinking, especially seven hypothesis-identification scenes of it were chosen. Learners were ten boys of 5th grade in elementary school, who have learned through science TV programs for one consecutive year. After watching that TV program, these seven scenes were presented to each learner. Their explanation to the scenes and TV notes were analyzed for this study. The results are as the following; (1) Learners can easily understand the scene from the prior scene which has closely logical relation with it. (2) Learners had logical thinking, that is enough to understand whole program, not by the whole scenes but by the some scenes which they could understand. (3) It is considered that the scenes coming after incomprehensive scene were explained by the relation between them and the prior comprehensive scene.