The purpose of the study was to scrutinize relations among attitudes toward school mathematics in the sense of Osgood, and categories 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 stated by Krathwohl in the affective domain of educational objectives. For measuring attainment to each category, I used category scales of the instrument FA which was developed following Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Affective Domain) by Krathwohl et al., and as an attitudinal scale, I used the MSD-A which was recently developed for measuring attitudes toward school mathematics. I obtained the result that the coefficient of correlation between the scale of attitudes and the scale of category 1.0 was significantly lower than those among attitudes and other categories. Moreover, there was a similar tendency among these categories and items highly loading on each of the four factors predicted from the factor analysis of the MSD.
(1) Purpose: The purpose of this survey is to find out the general tendency in terms of student affective factors, especially motivational and attitudinal , which are usually derived from a sense of value, existing in the present English teaching situation in junior and senior high schools. (2) Subjects: 1. 1st year students from junior high school 90 (male: 43, female: 47) 2. 1st year students from senior high school 80 (male: 42, female: 38) 3. 2nd year students from two kinds of senior high school (158 (male: 88, female: 70))/ (TOTAL 328 (male: 173, female: 155)) (3) Questionnaire administered to high school students 5 = absolutely agree 4 = quite agree 3 = no opinion 2 = quite disagree 1 = absolutely disagree Questionnaire A. Why are you studying English? 1. Because I want to pass the entrance examination. 2. Because I want to be a specialist of English. 3. Because I want to be superior to others. 4. Because I want to take a trip abroad. 5. Because I want to study abroad. 6. Because I want to study English as common sense. 7. Because I want to make friends with foreigners. 8. Because I want to teach foreigners Japan. 9. Because I must study English as a subject in my school. B. What kind of hopes do you have in English learning? 1. I wish I could speak English well, (speaking) 2. I wish I could appreciate American, English movies without reading Japanese superimposition. (hearing) 3. I wish I could translate English into Japanese well, (translation) 4. I wish I could read writings in English easily, (reading) 5. I wish I could write letters in English easily. (writing) 6. I wish I could speak English with good pronunciation, (pronunciation) 7. I wish I could do typewriting well, (typewriting) C. When do you want to study English? 1. When I am interested in the English lesson. 2. When I can understand English well. 3. When I have fully prepared for the English lesson. 4. When I have fully reviewed the English lesson. 5. When I feel intimacy in the English teacher. 6. When I am praised in the English classroom. 7. When I feel expectation from the English teacher. 8. When I am ignored by the English teacher. 9. When I have rivals in English. 10. When I fell inferiority to others in English. Result and discussion: Several factors have been considered and identified as important in the learning of a foreign language. It would be no easy task to identify which factor is the most influential and significant for the success of foreign language learning. But I am very surprised to see the result that the number of those who answered that I want to study English when I feel intimacy in English teachers is getting higher as the students grow. This result shows that above all, English teachers have strong influence on the students' motivation in English Learning.
In order to develop teaching strategies suitable for children, we should collect effective information on them. Information obtained from fact-findings or pre-tests, which has been carried out so far, has been not sufficiently utilized for developing teaching strategies. One of the most significant kinds of information for a teacher must be that on the information processing, which enables him/her to develop teaching strategies by the information from his/her own class alone. In this article, therefore, Hayashi's theory of quantification (III) is examined as a means of the information processing suitable for this purpose, and concrete procedures based on this principle for developing teaching strategies are discussed. Grouping children obtained by the procedures makes it possible to develop strategies for more individualized teaching than ever.
The "Method for Grouping Children" proposed in the preceding paper was applied to the analysis of the results of a pre-test for a series of science lessons "Concentration and weight of a solution of salt" for 5th graders. Teaching strategies for each group obtained by the method was developed. Some problems occurring in the process of applying this method were discussed. From the present results, the method was found to be effective in developing more suitable teaching strategies than ever, though there remained some problems to be solved.
The present study was designed to examine a developmental change seen in patterns of Forward-Roll on a mat. Infants and children, aged 3 to 11 years old, rolled on the mat and their rolling styles were pictured and analyzed. To further confirm the change, a practical learning process of Forward-Roll was pursuited on some children, 5 to 11 years old, using a 16mm-firm and electromyography. A developmental change was definitely discernible in the rolling pattern. The infants aged 3 years old couldn't roll forward in a defined style, and subsequently through respective characteristics by age groups at 5-6 years old, the children, 7-8 years old, could show the complete Forward-Roll. Particularly, nine- to eleven-years old children could respond to Forward-Roll in the skillful style. These facts were confirmed in the practical learning process. These results suggested that the teaching given in the present physical activity courses might arrest the proficiency in Forward-Roll.
Children become men in human Society. When they have interaction and develop themselves, children get image through their senses at first, then consider about this image with imagery (classify, limit, recreate and guess). This experiment was designed to explore this mental mechanism. Each Ss was shown seven pictures, and asked to order them as a story and tell his story according to these pictures. The result showed that Ss didn't pay attention to the relationship between picture's similarity in 4 to 5 years old, then Ss became to recreate seven pictures in 5 to 6 years old.