With the aim of drilling students in speech making, the authors asked pupils to make three minute speeches. Each pupil in a second year class of Matsubase Elementary School planned his or her speech using a topic from personal experience, and each made a short speech before his or her classmates. After the speech was over, it was evaluated by the speaker himself or herself and by the teacher and his or her classmates. The evaluation was made according to the items shown above. These evaluations were summarized, and analyzed from various points of view. From these evaluations much information useful in speech training was obtained.
It has been said that an instruction is organized by systematic designing of three basic components; teaching activities, teaching materials and learning activities. Until now, in music education, this designing has been generally done depending upon the sense and musical capacities of teachers except for a few cases. As a result the reasonable theory which assists every music teacher in instructional planning has not been formed. For the designing of music instruction the reasonable theory which links the structure of instructional contents with the children's cognition should be build up. Relating to this point we can learn from the idea concerning the organization of teaching materials in other subjects. The purpose of this article is to point up the problems referring to the designing of music instruction plans and standing on this, to confirm a possibility of the practical application of the former idea to music instruction.
An interesting phenomenon can be seem when we observe and analyze motor actions of skilled persons. When these actions are observed and analyzed at a macroscopic level, they seem very organized and consistent as a whole, so that when repeated they appear to be identical. But, when the same actions are observed and analyzed at a microscopic level, they show different forms each time and appear disorganized and disorderly. Why do motor actions take this form? A possible answer is to make it possible for man to respond appropriately to particular situations or environmental changes. Man is an open system because he is interacting constantly with the environment through the exchange of energy and information. The fact that the system is open to the environment means that it is influenced by changes in the environment. So, to respond appropriately to different environmental situations, the system must have acquired flexible motor programs which support delicate adjustments. And it is taught that in order to acquire flexible motor programs, some degree of freedom is necessary in response choice during the learning process. Taking into consideration the above mentioned statements, the following hypothesis was constructed. In serial motor learning, when the teaching program becomes stricter and each component part of a serial task is overprogrammed, the learner's degree of freedom in response choice becomes more restricted and consequently, a low performance level may be the result. Sixty female undergraduate students participated in this experiment to test the above hypothesis. The experiment was conducted in the real-life situation of classroom and the subject were divided into three groups, each with twenty subjects. Three learning conditions based on the degree of freedom in relation to response choice were set up and the three groups were respectively arranged to each learning condition. The task was a serial learning of basketball skills. The results were analyzed in terms of execution time of trials, successful trials, anticipation, errors and stability in performance. They can be summarized as follows. The group that performed under the highest degree of freedom showed a high performance level in relation to all the above mentioned standpoints of analysis, specially in relation to anticipation and errors. A possible explanation of these results is that in serial motor learning, it is preferable not to emphasize learning of each component part of a sequence. Instead, what should be emphasized is how these parts are organized in relation to the end. So, when teaching programs becomes stricter, the learner's attention is concentrated on how to perform each component part of a sequence accurately, and as a result it becomes more and more difficult to recognize the sequence as a whole. Thus, the performance level in a serial task becomes lower.
It is the aim of the present paper to make clear those levels of those four systems, that is, the perceptual, central nervous, motor and feed back systems, in the information-processing which reflect the chain and interaction of them in children's motor development. Three variables were selected and used for locating the information-processing in children's movement coordination: 1) The response velocity in the tapping test 2) The number of correct-error responses in the discrimination test 3) The execution time and the number of error responses in the diagram-pursuit task with Two Hands Coordination. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1) The X^^- of the response velocity in the tapping task were 44.6 times per 20 seconds. And the correlation between the response by the left hand and that by the right one was highly significant in the value (r=0.884). 2) In the discrimination test, the X^^- of the number of the correct responses were 7 per 30 seconds, the SD was as high as 3.7. It may be said that there are some significant differences in the discrimination ability of children at the age as early as 5 years old. 3) In the Two-Hands Coordination task, the relation between the movements of the left and the right hand are recognized by children at the early stage of trials. It was found out, however, that it is difficult for children to coordinate their both hands in the diagram-pursuit task, though the execution time tends to be shorter, and the number of errors to decrease. These results may suggest that the movement coordination which reflects the organization of the four systems in the information-processing should be used as a marker indicating the motor development in children.
In this paper, the basic principles of the conditioned reflex were elucidated, which have some influences upon the present theories of didactics and learning. Although the investigations in the present Soviet physiology, psychology and pedagogy are based on Pavlov's conditioned reflex, they consider that the behavior of organism has the cybernetical features in it. Some thesis written by P.K.Anokhin who made a significant contribution in the cybernetical approach to the studies of behavior were scrutinized. As the result of the reexaminating of conditioned reflex from the visual point of organism-adaptation, "anticipatory reflection of reality" was recognized as the biological roots of the conditioned reflex. This type of reflection was formerly formulated as the "principle of signalization" by Pavlov. Some problems of organizing the teaching-learning process and certain viewpoints of constructing the object of physical education were discussed on the basis of this principle.
Immanuel Kant has substantively thought about "Kunst" and defined it inhis Kritik der Urteilskraft as follows: technique ("Kunst") is shown as one of deeds to cognate an object as changeable and make it adapt its actuality. It is also able to answer the purpose at any time and to be recognized by judgment. He has further written about judgment in two ways; first, deductive inference, by which the particular connotes the universal; second, inductive inference, by which the particular leads to the universal. It is, therefore important to develop the technical thinking as one aspect of character building, the whole faculties of human beings consisting of wisdom, judgment, reason as he insists.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the objectives of Industrial Arts education in order to improve the contents of Industrial Arts education in junior high school. By the latest reports^<(1)(2)>, we reported the meaning of Industrial Arts education. In this study, by analyzing the history and actual condition of Industrial Arts and Homemaking education we studied what would be the desirable structure of the subject in the future. As the results, we can't regard Industrial Arts and Homemaking as one subject because the subject items for male are quite different from those for female in Industrial Arts and Homemaking education, we conclude that the educational system of Industrial Arts and Homemaking education in the present course of study is not desirable.