Although various theories of communicative competence have been put forward in applied linguistics, the dynamic process of negotiation of meaning in the individual has mostly been left unexplained, other than by Widdowson. This paper argues that Donald Davidson's philosophical analysis extends and elaborates Widdowson's argument and thus contributes to theories of communicative competence and second language education. Davidson's concepts of prior theories and passing theories are particularly suited to accounting for communication in a second language which is successful despite many mistakes and errors. Davidson starts his argument from the assumption of such successful communication, and not from the Chomskian ideal assumption of the knowledge of language. He then makes it clear that communication is a cognitive as well as a linguistic process. From his argument we learn that passing theories are one of the two major targets of second language education along with prior theories, and that teaching language for communication necessarily goes beyond the strict boundary of 'language' as is assumed in theoretical linguistics.
The purpose of this research is to look at the way in which home economics education became established in Japan, through an analysis of the way it was taught in Kagawa prefecture in its early stages. According to 'Zentsuuji-Chuo Elementary School Plan (1949)', home economics was part of the "the technology training filed". However, in fact, home economics was actually taught as a non- core subject. Some of the topics of home economics were listed in the core curriculum, for example, knowledge about family relations, home management, food, clothes and housing. However, these topics were often only taught incidentally as part of social studies classes, which were more central to the curriculum.
The aim of this research is to investigate how student-teachers and experienced teachers, who belong to national university attached secondary schools, think about practical teaching experience and what they expect from each other during this experience. We have undertaken the quantitative and qualitative surveys to achieve the above mentioned research aim. The surveys show that most experienced teachers regard practical teaching experience as the beginning of continuing professional development, and they engage in reflection through coaching and showing models to their student-teachers. On the other hand, most student-teachers recognize that the practical teaching experience is good opportunity to become aware of themselves as teachers by intercommunication with experienced teachers and other student-teachers. Finally, we have tried to investigate the possibility of mentoring as part of the practical teaching experience and comparing it with England. We have found out that there are some obstacles to the development of the mentoring system in Japan.
The aim of this paper is to clarify problems and significance in the new teaching method of history study based on policy criticism. The method deals with people's decision making in the past. Similar educational contents are referred to in another method based on rational decision making in the area of social study. This paper distinguishes those two studies at the level of teaching plans. It then explains that the difference lies in how to encourage the understanding of facts. The study based on policy criticism does not have students make decisions directly, but gets them to carefully consider the situations of people in the past carefully. It finds problems in developing students' judgments of various facts and tries to bring solutions to these problems.
The purposes of this comparative study are, by comparing to Japan, to grasp some features of Chinese elementary science education, and to establish fundamental knowledge resources for ideal teaching in this subject. Firstly, the study compared the educational objectives, topics taught, the number of total class hours and evaluation criteria of science education in both countries. Secondly, the study conducted the science achievement survey which was developed to measure knowledge I (rote memory), knowledge II (simultaneous application of multiple knowledge), and laboratory techniques. The results of the comparison in the achievement survey revealed that Chinese students scored as well as Japanese students in the knowledge I test, but they scored significantly lower than Japanese students in the knowledge II test and laboratory techniques. The author, through the comparison of science curricula, attributed the difference in the achievement to two facts: 1) that the topics covered are so crammed into fewer class hours that Chinese students have few opportunities to apply the knowledge learned in the classroom, and 2) that the Chinese curriculum over-emphasizes "teaching" and disregards children's "thinking for themselves".
Attempts have been made to promote pupils' health education. Referred to as 'health classes', they have aimed at an integration of both on understanding of health and their own practice in order to improve their health. In other words, they are instructed to understand the significance of behavior for health and then to put it into practice. Instructional materials were prepared so that pupils could develop their understanding of health the way in which health behavior influences health. In addition, the pupils were scheduled in class to carry out a practical investigation. Assessments were made of their changes in their level of understanding and actual behavior with regards to their own health. After the class, the pupils in the experimental group became more able to relate the contents of the class to their own health, and their level of understanding of health was raised and the incidence of injury in school was markedly decreased as compared to the other control group. These results clearly indicate that 'health classes' are effective in enhancing understanding of good health behavior and for putting it into actual practice. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the 'health class' which integrated both an understanding of the significance of health and an introduction of actual practice into school life.
Study into the development of English textbooks is still at an early stage, and thus researchers tend to depend on qualitative study, such as reviewing, or qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis has never been challenged in this area because of the large amount of materials and the lack of a standardized comparative method. This study introduced a new method of quantitative analysis, using computer software. In this study, we digitized all of the materials and then analyzed them in terms of the frequency of the vocabulary, their readability, and the frequency of the use of the relative clause and the passive voice. This study focused on the post-war English textbooks called New Jack and Betty: Step by Step, High School English, and Sunshine English Course, referring to the quantitative data of the textbooks published in the Meiji and Taisho Periods, i.e., The National Readers, The Globe Readers, and The Standard English Readers, used in Umamoto et al. (2001). In so doing, we believe that characteristics of the post-war English textbooks can be clarified and seen more objectively, and also that the present analysis will contribute to the historical study of the development of English textbooks in Japan.
Discriminative difficulties of seven English consonant minimal pairs were investigated in terms of learners' actual performance and self-evaluation. The results show, for example, that /l/-/r/ is not the only difficult minimal pair for Japanese learners of English and that they feel it more difficult to discriminate the pair /d/-/dz/ than /l/-/r/. Gaps between learners' actual performance and self-evaluation in discriminating the consonant minimal pairs were also investigated. The results show, for example, that /s/-/θ/, /dz/-/z/, /∫i/-/si/ and /f/-/h/ are minimal consonant pairs which have relatively great gaps while /b/-/v/, /l/-/r/ and /n//η/ have relatively small gaps.
The present paper explores recent trends in technology education, based on the analysis of the contents of the papers from The Bulletin of Japanese Curriculum Research and Development and Journal of the Japanese Society of Technology Education. The results revealed that all of the papers dealt with the methodology of technology education in junior high school and teaching materials that are close in nature to their parent disciplines, science and technology. Papers addressing the objectives and roles of technology education in general education are few in proportion, although they are constantly published annually. Some of them whose quality is high are compiled into monographs. One academic society organized a research team for pursuing this avenue and periodically published its products. It is expected in the future that various types of research would be carried out that would verify how technology education in junior high school contributes to the life-long development of humans and how it has played its roles in establishing a state on the basis of technology.