Art and craft education in elementary and junior high school consists of two major fields which are expression and appreciation. The expression field could be classified into several parts which are painting, sculpture, constructive art, design and craft. This paper will deal with the issue of constructive art and design in an educational area particularly. Constructive art education historically originated in the preliminary education of Bauhaus. The systematic learning of color and form is the base of constructive art education. The idea of color and from is based on plastic elements and visual language. Both are actually modern concepts which appeared in this early century. On the other hand, the main constructure of design education is the problem-solving learning related tc the current social movement. Mostly the materials of constructive art education are abstract because its purpose is tc cultivate children's artistic sense, technique and creativity through just pure, in another word, purposeless creation. Therefore, constructive art education must work with design education which essentially includes social elements. This collaboration is important It means the education of visual literacy which covers plastic element and visual language and could extend the traditional viewpoints of art and craft education.
Many of heat phenomena in the living environment can be explained using a view of heat like to the caloric theory. Considering this fact and the development of the heat concept in the history of science, one can suppose that adults will retain various ideas about heat which appear in children's developmental process. The purpose of this paper describes the conceptions of heat in adults and, as the result, is to clarify the children's formation of the heat concept. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire on the weight and volume of a heated body and the heat transfer. The subjects were the 92 students in the Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University. The main findings may be summarized as follows: (1) The learning of the cubical expansion and the heat conduction in an elementary school has great influence on the children's acquisition of the heat concept. (2) Heat is perceived at the first as a type of material substance with properties attributed generally to matter. (3) The single-component view of hot heat appears earlier than the two-component view of hot heat and cold heat. (4) The two-component view of heat is suitable for the explanation of the heat transfer in an isotropic solid. (5) Realizing that the hot heat and the cold heat take up no space or are equal in volume, children will attempt to introduce the conception of motion of molecules and atoms into the notion of heat like caloric.
We researched the teaching-learning process through the skin-resistance responce. We also studied how to use this data for analysing the teaching-learning process. The following are the results we obtained 1. For analyzing the teaching-learning process, we found that we can use that the skin resistance responce is not present while children are concentrating and strong attentive to stimuli, however, for an orienting responce, the value of this skin resistance responce increases. 2. In this research, we discovered that audio-visual teaching materials are very effective for obtaining children's attention and concentration.
The word 'When' is classified as a relative adverb and a conjunction, besides an interrogative adverb, in the majority of Japanese-English dictionaries. In American dictionaries, on the other hand, no mention is given of a relative adverb as regards 'when', although 'what' is explained as a compound relative pronoun and 'Which' as a relative. The contributor excoriates the grammatical concept of the relative adverb, and finding practically no substance in its core, proceeds to claim that the expulsion of the relative adverb from the classroom will very much relieve students out of the grammatical labyrinth on their way to acquiring English proficiency.
This study aims at investigating what effect "reflection", "subject institution" and "information processing" activity will produce on systemization of the problem-solving activity in music learning. The objects are group activity in the third grade students of the junior high school. The results indicate the following facts; 1) "Reflection" activity makes the problem-solving activity promote, concentrating of the group members' consciousness and making the next subject clear. 2) The more concrete the contents of "reflection" activity are, the more promotive is the problem-solving activity. 3) As the contents of "subject institution" connect directly with those of "reflection", their being concrete is the condition to promote the problem-solving activity. 4) "Information processing" activity makes the problem-solving activity promote, giving students a new point of view and thinking and letting them try and error to answer the information (question).