It is important that we consider the relation between understanding and memory, when we make a teaching plan. I have observed a feeble-minded child for a year. This is a report on the results of observations. A feeble-minded child has the same process as pattern in understanding and memory of a popular child. This study is summarized as follows: (1) A child is able to remember one by one not a detail part, but a whole of images. This is, so to speak, pattern recognition and one of the basic memory of a popular child. (2) When a child acquires new knowledge, he could easily learn if he would develop his study on the basis of what he had ever learnt. That is a reason why, we must construct a teaching program in complying with many ways of understanding as children have various experiences.
Among pupils in the lower classes of elementary schools, records of their performance in various subjects seem to correlate with each other rather closely. The authors examined the achievements of second grade pupils in all subjects for period of three school terms, or one academic year. The correlation coefficients between each of the subjects were calculated and compared. By such an analysis the authors were able to see clearly which subjects correlated with each other closely, and which subjects had lower correlations. Basic skills in the Japanese language, such as the ability to read and to express oneself clearly in a sentence, seem to have a great affect upon performance in other subjects as well. As a result of this study differences in the characteristics of various subjects from the viewpoint of the pupils' learning process were also recognized.
In the present paper, we deal with the scaling of the interest and the difficulty in eight subjects of prospective elementary school teachers and children in sixth grade by the method of paired comparisons. The findings of this study are summarized as follows; (1) There were statically the differences between the interest in eight subjects for prospective elementary school teachers and children in sixth grade. (2) There were statically no differences between the difficulty in eight subjects for prospective elementary school teachers and children in sixth grade. (3) The correlations between the interest and the difficulty in seven subjects except physical education revealed a marked negative relationship for children in sixth grade and a law positive relationship for prospective elementary school teachers.
Our previous papers have reported that we have developed an instrument measuring cognitive structures of students by the Word-Association Test of Iwate Form (for brevity: WA-Test of I-Form). Nishimura (a member of our seminar) has established the 'P-P Graph Method' which describes, on a two-dimensional space, the change between pre- and posttest score of responses in WA-Test as a point with Cartesian coordinates (x-axis is a pretest score and y-axis a posttest one). We have tried 'P-P Graph Analysis' for several researches and have found a remarkable pattern for distributions of points in P-P Graphs by the cluster analysis with the 'change coefficient' defined by us. It seems that the P-P Graph Analysis might be useful to assess the teaching arts of teachers in teaching-learning process.
This is a basic research study to clarify the necessary conditions for organizing the school science teaching based on child's cognitive process. The objective of this experiment is to make clear the psycho-physiological activities induced by the level of information processing. The study was undertaken to measure the electroencepharogram (EEG), plethysmogram (PTG) and electro-oculogram (EOG) in ten male students, in place of children, as induced by recognizing identity and difference. Cluster analysis was used to analyze them. The experiment had five stages which were rest time (RES), collecting information for recognizing identity (CII), conclusion of recognizing identity (CRI), collecting information for recognizing difference (CID), and conclusion of recognizing difference (CRD). The results were summarized as follows: (1) Psycho-physiological activities induced by CII and by CID showed the same activities. (2) Psycho-phrsiological activities induced by CRI and by CRD showed a different activities. (3) Psycho-physiological activities induced by CII and by CRI showed a different activities, and also, CID and CRD had a different activities. (4) RES showed a different psycho-physiological activities from the other. (5) The combination on activities of EEG, PTG and EOG showed different types depended on the level of information processing. From these, it is considered that psycho-physiological activities are changed according to the level of information processing and it is possible to grasp them to a certain degree by analyzing EEG, PTG and EOG.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of error-restriction emphasis instruction on two-hand coordination learning. Ten undergraduate female students, unfamiliar with learning experiment and with the problem under consideration served as subjects. They were divided into two groups (C.G. and E.G.), each with five subjects. Both groups received explanations about the learning task, and after that one group (E.G.) received additional instruction "don't make errors". The same instruction was given at random to the subjects through the learning process. The learning task was a two-hand coordination task and each subject performed thirty trials. Four dependent measures were analyzed in this experiment: execution time of trials, number of errors, number of directional errors and respiration rate. The main results were as follows. In relation to execution time of trials, no significant difference was found between the two groups. But, in relation to errors and directional errors, the experimental group (E.G.) showed a higher rate of errors in comparison with the control group (C.G), especially in the earlier stages of learning. It was found that error-restriction emphasis instruction tended to have a greater effect upon the two-hand coordination learning in the earlier stages. Some support was found for the hypothesis that when error-restriction emphasis instruction is given to the learner, the learner's attention is directed as to how to perform each part of the learning task, and so it becomes more and more difficult for the learner to understand the structure of learning task. As a consequence, the response selection and response execution become less accurate, and the performance level becomes lower.
This study has been conducted, using 3 groups of 6 boys each, which were divided according to their running times. To observe the effect of running velocity on step frequency and step length during a-100-meter run, each step of running was measured. Then, to compare this data with post training results, the same measurement was done after completing ten exercise classes for 20 minutes each over a period of three months. The results were summarized as follows; 1) The top group was superior to the poor group in step frequency, step length, step length/height, maximum velocity and rate of deceleration both before and after training. 2) After training velocity, step frequency, step length, step length/height, maximum velocity and rate of deceleration were improved in all groups. In particular there were significant improvements in velocity, step length and step length/height. 3) The velocity curve during a-100-meter run could be classified into 5 patterns as follows; Pattern I: Just after starting the maximum velocity was gained but it was not so high and in a short time it decelerated. Pattern II: After obtaining the maximum velocity there was a remarkable variance in velocity. Pattern HI: After obtaining the high maximum velocity there was a deceleration in a short time. Pattern IV: After obtaining the high maximum velocity there was a maintenance of velocity for a while till the deceleration. Pattern V: After obtaining the high maximum velocity there was little deceleration during a-100-meter run. 4) The velocity curve patterns were apt to switch over from pattern I to pattern V, and the appearance point of the maximum velocity after starting was apt to prolong as running record time improved. The tendency was also recognized on the same student after training.
To arouse the activities by the students on their own volition, it is necessary to provide them with a concrete aim. The author tries to create a method whereby the students can grasp the contents of the assignment and acquire the knowledge and capability, through the entire course of accumulation of their own creative activities. Here, we have given the students as their fail and concrete aim the subject of "Panel Preparation". We have allowed the student to take a free choice of the theme, and had each group put up their learning plan through panel preparation, which in turn will facilitate them to visualize the contents of the assignment and the method. Through the processes of practical works (such as the display of panels, demonstration and explanation by the students, an assessment by the audience), we intend to fulfill the following requirements: 1) To induce activities aroused by the students their own volition. 2) To let them master the method and processes tootain the required knowledge. 3) To provide the students with the ability to coolidate their knowledge, method and processes they have learned into a systematic formulation. 5) As a result of learning, acquisition of knowledge and its full understanding. The Authors have some practical experiences it teaching classes with the above aims and viewpoints.