The researcher aims to explicate in this research the rationale of home economics curriculum based on the "practical-problem approach", which is recognized as a remarkable aspect of curriculum development in the United States, by examining the characteristics and significance of "practical-problems" as the constitutional concept of home economics curriculum. Marjorie M. Brown considered the perennial practical-problems as the origin of problems that human beings may encounter throughout life recurring over time and continue across cultures, and so she proposed that the curriculum contents be constructed around these problems. In the Minnesota State Problem Posing Curriculum Model, which is grounded on the theory of Marjorie M. Brown, the perennial practical-problems are viewed as the central concept of the home economics curriculum, and the instructional themes, which are the nuclei of the curriculum contents, are derived from the perennial practical-problems interrelated with the system of human action. It enables learners to organize his/her thinking processes in practical reasoning toward the solving of the perennial practical-problems through learning to search for the real meaning of the problems lying in their core. It will be appreciated that through this kind of curriculum, learners can broaden their horizon by using the problem as a vehicle to confront with the realities of life in the world they live.
About two thousand teachers working at elementary schools in the Kanto districts, including Tokyo area, were asked about the kind of expertise they acquired for science teaching and when they acquired them. The folio wings are the major findings of this study: (1) Concerning knowledge on the use of teaching materials for elementary school science and the basic skills for teaching scientific observations and experiments, the teachers who graduated from both science and non-science areas have acquired their knowledge in almost 10 years through pre-service education, although the former are superior to the later. (2) Concerning communication skills, the teachers who graduated in non-science areas acquired them in almost 10 years, whereas the teachers who graduated in science area did not acquire them necessarily in the period, that is, there is diversity of stages in which they acquired their skills. (3) Concerning psychological knowledge, majority of elementary school teachers have acquired it in almost 10 years after their pre-service education. (4) Some kind of expertise based upon certain skills of information processing are not really sufficient for majority of the elementary school teachers.
We conducted a research on how we can effectively support learners in their learning of programming methods. Beginners usually can deepen their understanding of programming by encountering errors and correcting them in the programming process. However, beginners sometimes can not easily find their errors in programming by themselves. Therefore, supporting learners in finding the causes of the errors will help them understand programming better. In order to provide learners with effective support, we gave them a test in programming that are repetitive statements which contain control structures. After that, we analyzed the contents of errors beginners are apt to make. The components of repetitive construct are "for" and "while" statements. We did a cluster analysis to classify the contents of errors and to clarify their similarities and the in probable relations. As a result, we found out the relative structure and the support which was necessary to enhance learning of programming. We also found out that there was no significant difference between the kind of errors related to "for" statements and those of "while" statements, therefore the same kind of support should be required. Under the error patterns, we investigated the useful support for program understanding which corresponds to errors beginners are liable to make.
In April 1994, the University of Tsukuba attached Senior High School at Sakado established an "Integrated Science Course," which is a form of the "Integrated Course". To implement the course, we developed a new curriculum based on tradition and achievement of our technological and vocational education existing at that time. The main distinguishing characteristic of this curriculum is the existence of many electives in the fields ranging from technical to general. It is necessary for students to make their individual schedules by choosing their subjects exactly and efficiently from various electives being offered. Teachers must register student's attendance, and maintain student's records, and make various documents concerning school affairs. Due to this "Integrated" system, we developed new management and administrative methods, and made examination of the results of these methods afterwards. We also, alluded to the possibility of its application in junior or senior high schools when various electives are offered in their curriculum.
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate by Fuzzy analysis, centered on emotional domain, the Informatics Education at the junior high school, senior high school, and university school levels. At the same time, I compared the evaluation of class results by factor analysis (former analysis). As a result, their scholastic improvement can be understood as being influenced by human nature, practical skill lessons, and a logical lessons of a teacher. It is related with human relations, practical advice and a lesson supported up by a theory. I was able to understand that teacher's leadership is related with interest, concern and desire. Mainly, the Fuzzy analysis made use of Fuzzy count and Membership Function. The results of Fuzzy, Cluster, and Factor analyses made show that the emotion domain, consisting of interest, concern, desire and manner, was established as a base of intelligence related to "knowledge and understanding."
It is important for us to be able to grasp how students form their own impressions to musical works we often present in music education. It was presumed that impression formation to musical works was influenced by the strength of the depression levels of individuals. Therefore, the author investigated this concept by involving 126 students enrolled in universities in Tokyo, in February 1997. According to the results of the investigation made, the author confirmed that the two groups which can be classified as "high depression level" and "low depression level" possess different features of impression formation to musical works. The author considers that this difference resulted from a sense of musical characteristics that include "dynamics" and "brightness". Accordingly, the author discussed the interaction of music with existing mental state, especially with depression, and put forward a desirable activity of listening taking into account student's mental state in music education.
The purpose of this report is to study the process of how children create sound images they want to express and embody while creating music, and to define the relationship between images and sounds. Firstly, in this report, the term "image" was defined . Secondly the experimental lessons were held for the children who were in the second grade, the fourth grade and the sixth grade in the primary school to analyze the process of transformation from an image to sound based on the definition of "image" in this report. As a result, it was found out that there were five steps followed in creative music making that work with feedback to embody sound from image: i.e. creation, recognition, prediction, selection and creation.