This study analyzes how Korean learners and Japanese native speakers evaluate phrase final intonations by Korean learners. Korean learners and Japanese native speakers were requested to evaluate four intonation types (HL, LHL, H, L). This was followed by an interview regarding their evaluation criterion. The main finding of the study is that both Korean learners and Japanese native speakers rated HL and L intonations as natural, and LHL and H intonations as unnatural. Previous studies did not distinguish between HL and LHL intonations. However, the result of this study indicates that Korean learners can distinguish between HL and LHL intonations and rate LHL intonation as unnatural. Further, the interview data shows that Japanese native speakers are concerned with the conversation situation when they evaluate, but Korean learners consider the height or the length of intonation and Japanese-ness or Korean-ness. The result suggests that Korean learners are unconcerned with conversation situations, indicating the necessity of teaching Japanese pronunciation in the context of situation in order to encourage proper pronunciation.
The purpose of this study is to examine the structure of health literacy required for junior high school students in Japan and to investigate its relation to health knowledge and life habits among junior high school students. A total of 159 1st grade junior high school students who were enrolled at a junior high school attached to a national university completed the questionnaire for development of a health literacy scale. Factor analysis revealed five-factor structure (thinking ability on health management, ability to improve life habits, health information literacy, health communication, and assertion). Using the health literacy scale, its relations to scores on health knowledge and life habits were assessed among 460 1st to 3rd grade junior high school students. The results indicated there were weak relationships between health literacy and health knowledge, and between health literacy and life habits. In addition, theoretical problems on health literacy and practical application of this scale to health education were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether e-learning-based educational intervention using Google Classroom was effective in improving Japanese university EFL learners’ motivation. As many earlier studies that reported favorable results of e-learning suggest, we thought e-learning has immense potential to promote motivation to learn English and active learning. As we chose Self Determination Theory by Deci and Ryan as a theoretical basis, educational intervention was tailored to meet the three psychological needs of autonomy, competency and relatedness. We conducted pre- and post-motivational questionnaires and an English speaking test, and compared two groups. Our educational intervention turned out to lower the motivation of the experimental group. Although there is a possibility that this type of e-learning can be too overwhelming to non-English major students with lower proficiency, we believe we can achieve satisfactory results if the following problems are solved: psychological burden, difficulty, lack of one-on-one communication and poor PC skills. The problem of PC skills, however, may be solved as the students become older and more competent in using PC. As for the speaking test, the experimental group’s average score was better although there was no significant difference. We checked the relationship of the English proficiency test and the speaking test, and found that the experimental group students with lower proficiency did relatively better than students with higher proficiency, suggesting the possibility of effectiveness of educational intervention on lower-level students of the experimental group.
The present study examines the learning process of social studies in an elementary school to learn to be able to make a value judgment. Further, it expands a possibility of the value study in social studies. It has been a long time since social studies lessons for developing consensus-building ability and forming sense of values started to be practiced. However, they have hardly been practiced in elementary schools. In the case of elementary schools in Japan, teachers still instill discipline in children to fulfill their social responsibilities. One of the main reasons for them is the fact that the approach to form sense of values is not made clear. In this study, I clarified the approach to form children’s values through analyzing social studies lessons based on objective analysis. In addition, it was made clear that children’s values differ depending on how to approach --discourse, values, or social values.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how the beliefs and images of ideal lessons to elementary school pupils change through a university course on teaching English to young learners. Two third-year university students (Student A and B), who hope to be elementary school teachers, were selected for this research. Their beliefs and images before and after taking a one-semester course were analyzed qualitatively through Steps for Coding and Theorization (SCAT) referring to their reflection reports written at the end of each lecture through the semester. As a result, the following four points were found out: 1) general beliefs on teaching itself changed positively through the course, 2) beliefs on the expectation of teachers’ using English in class stayed high regardless of the students’ confidence in their own English proficiency, 3) images of their ideal lessons were partly affected by what they learned throughout the course. However, their core values remained the same, and finally, 4) beliefs on the expectation of pupils using English in class were affected, though it was not clarified as to what kind of beliefs both Student A and B gained through taking the onesemester course.
The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of Dictogloss to better integrate grammar acquisition in context among Japanese university students. Dictogloss is one of the output tasks and “a taskbased procedure designed to help language-learning students towards a better understanding of how grammar works on a text basis” (Wajnryb, 1990: 6). This study took place at a Japanese university, where 65 Japanese university students served as subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups: One was a Dictoglossbased group (comprised of 33 students), and the other was a Dictation-based group (comprised of 32 students). Each group was given a pre-test, alternating Dictogloss/ Dictation activities (a total of six times), and a post-test. Both tests contained the questions related to grammar and English composition. The results of the post-tests showed that the Dictogloss-based group performed significantly better than the Dictationbased group in terms of the grammar tests. The Dictogloss-based group had a tendency to use the target grammatical items more correctly and precisely than the Dictation-based group. In a reconstruction stage in the sixth activity of the Dictogloss-based group, some pairs were asked to record their dialogue in the pair work. The dialogue implied the importance of LREs (language-related episodes) in a pair or a group work.
This study was to examine the effect of a teaching program in a soccer class which associated knowledge of physical fitness with skills. The subjects were 40 male junior high school students. In pre- and postprogram, we conducted skill tests (ball juggling), physical fitness tests (150m sprint with direction-changes; 6 x 25m sprints with direction-changes with rest intervals of 30s). In addition, a questionnaire regarding technique, physical fitness, psychology was conducted after each class. Before and after classes, another questionnaire was conducted regarding knowledge, conception and judgment aspects. The present study observed that this soccer teaching program could improve knowledge toward the method of enhancing physical fitness among participating subjects, although physical fitness levels could not be enhanced in this study.