This study aims to construct a metacognition scale using Item Response Theory in order to continuously evaluate students' metacognition. A 29-item questionnaire was administered to 626 lower secondary school students to expand the item pool. Based on this research, we constructed two parallel tests and performed an experimental assessment in a science lesson aimed at improving the students' metacognition. From comparing the results of parallel tests and stimulated recall method, the outcomes of two evaluations indicated the same tendency. Therefore, we interpreted that two parallel tests could evaluate metacognition appropriately.
The objectives of this study were to clarify learners' understanding about household work and to see how the objectives of Home Economics lessons are achieved. Lessons about household work which were focused on relationships with one's family were given in a high school. 119 student descriptions on lesson worksheets were analyzed. From these data, the learners' understanding was categorized into four domains: feeling, utility, valuing, and social domains. These domains had a hierarchical structure. Sharing and discussing issues with the teacher or classmates led the learners to think of various viewpoints toward housework. The learners could deepen their understanding about household work through the lessons which gave them chances to think about caring relationships.
Students' attitudes toward learning were compared between a class with an emphasis on the introduction part and one without this emphasis. Furthermore, the formation of the sense of purpose and expectations of the students during one lesson unit were studied through qualitative analysis of students' utterances. In this study, a class with a demonstration experiment for the introduction providing an examination field for the entire classroom was called a "well thought introduction type class" and a class with just a simple orientation was called a "shortened introduction type class". After analysis, the following 3 points were clarified. (1) Lesson time became shorter in the "shortened introduction type class". (2) There was no difference in the level of proficiency of the lesson in both classes. (3) Although a sense of purpose and expectations develop in the introduction part through event presentation and task settings, they do not last throughout the lesson unit. Instead they are gradually modified and formed by examining the data obtained through experimentation. They are therefore formed similarly in spite of the different types of introduction.
This study aimed to use statistical analysis to examine elements comprising a physical education class based on students' values and beliefs and items representing these elements from the viewpoint of students. In an examination of content validity, 76 questions representing six elements (enjoyment, outcomes, learning, keeping rules or promises, cooperation, and desire) were selected. A survey was administered to 1219 junior high and high school students, and data from 916 students (age: 15.8 ±1.05) with valid responses were analyzed. As a result of statistical analysis, the above six elements and 50 items were judged to be valid as elements and question items for evaluating physical education classes. The reliability (α-coefficient) of each element was high (α=0.72〜0.91), and similar to those in previous studies. Hence, the 50 items selected were considered to have high reliability. In conclusion, it was judged that junior high and high school students consider that the above six elements and 50 items selected in this study are valid to evaluate the elements of a physical education place
The following demonstrates our thinking regarding learners with developmental disorders. A teacher's special attention emphasizes the learner's developmental disorder and harmfully influences the interpersonal relationship. We did a case study with learners who have development disorders for three months. Children with developmental disorders were placed without an adult supervisor in a regular elementary school class of sixth graders. Using indirect instructional activities, the learners' developmental disorder was less obvious. For instance, in the class, the students teach and assist other students. Moreover, it is permitted for the learner to walk about freely during class activities. The results were that the learners with a developmental disorder came to be able to function with other learners in a standard class. Our results indicate that learners with development disorders can come to function with other learners without the help of an adult supervisor.
It is said that while Japanese speaking learners of English can pronounce cat and cap easily, they cannot easily pronounce mat and map. This paper discusses the reasons for this fact based on the difference in distributional richness of the Japanese contracted sounds [kjæ] and [mjæ] in Japanese and presents principles for pronunciation practice of mat and map based on the discussion. This paper also presents ways of practicing the pronunciation of words with /æ/ preceded by single consonants by classifying them in terms of the presence and applicability of the corresponding Japanese contracted sounds.
Since the early 2000s, the pace of English language education reform in Japan has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost everyone engaging in English language education. In particular, attention has been drawn by educational administrators to the level of English proficiency among Japanese teachers of English; clearly, in order to develop students' English proficiency, teachers are first of all expected to have a good command of English. In spite of this, there has been very little actual discussion as to what we mean by English proficiency, and its definition therefore remains unclear within the context of Japanese education. This paper argues for clarity in this area. First, I draw on various terminologies relating to English proficiency. Then, I make a comparison between, on the one hand, the attainment goals in terms of English proficiency which the Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) has set out for Japanese teachers of English in their "Action Plan to Cultivate 'Japanese with English Abilities,'" and, on the other hand, those which the Hong Kong Education and Management Bureau has set out for Hong Kong teachers of English in the "Language Proficiency Requirement (LPR, English Language)." To this end, I summarize each of their respective approaches in terms of content, purpose, in-service teacher education and training. Finally, I suggest possible ways for setting effective attainment goals in terms of the English proficiency required for Japanese teachers of English.
This research examined the process whereby "preconceptions" implicitly represented within learners in a fourth-grade science class studying the "change of water state" change into "scientific concepts" through a combined method of analysis from macro and micro-viewpoints. Results of the analysis are as follows: 1) From a macro-viewpoint, the quantity shift of conceptual changes of the whole class throughout the entire course was measured using a quantitative analysis. As a result, it was suggested that reinterpretation of preconceptions is induced by expanding the range of denotations of concepts. 2) From a micro-viewpoint, discourse during the learning process was interrupted by microgenetic interactive analysis. As a result, it was shown that if critical attributes that are fundamentally conflicting (e.g., are steam bubbles water or air?) become explicit during dialogue with others, changes from preconceptions to scientific concepts are consequently induced during a process in which socio-cognitive conflicts are resolved.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the methodology for avoiding indoctrination in teaching history through analyzing "A New History of the United States" (11th Grade). This study clarifies the following two important methodological viewpoints for students to study history critically. (1) To learn different viewpoints gradually and to interpret history by using them in order to avoid students shaping narrow and deterministic perspectives. (2) To set the process in which students constantly identify and examine social scientific theory underpinning their own or other's historical interpretations.
The purpose of this study is to consider the significance and the method of sports curricula (SC) evaluation by teachers in Germany. The three main findings are as follows: 1) It is significant that, in Germany, teachers themselves participate in SC evaluation from the viewpoint of practice in order to develop new SC. 2) It is noteworthy that, in the process of evaluation and development of SC, many teachers' opinions (especially critical views of SC) are frequently adopted. 3) In the survey of SC evaluation, the question items can be classified into eight major categories.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the principles of the curriculum and instruction of "Integrated Practical Study" in China as part of citizenship education through analysis of some practices in elementary schools in Guangdong. The result of the analysis is as follows. 1) The aims of "Integrated Practical Study" in China are to develop the following practical abilities: inquiry, communication, social participation and action. 2) The contents of "Integrated Practical Study" in China are contemporary issues and problems: for example, environmental problems and social issues. 3) The methods of "Integrated Practical Study" in China involve social participatory study; to think and judge how we should act and participate in actual society as citizens in a community.
This paper explores trends in research on Life Environment Studies, based on the analysis of studies in The Bulletin of Japanese Association for the study of Life Environment Studies and Integrated Study education and The Bulletin of Japanese Curriculum Research and Development.
These studies are classified into the following eight groups: Learning Activity Composition; Children's Growing Awareness of Life Environment; Cooperation with Kindergartens; Nurturing Children's Sense of Life Environment; Curriculum Development; Textbooks and Picture Books; Improvement of teaching Skills; Teacher Training.
Hereafter it is expected that these representative papers on Life Environment Studies will be systematized and elaborated and that later studies will be based on the accumulation and analysis of data reflecting children's ability developed through Life Environment Studies.