This study aims to clarify the mechanism of, and conditions for, the process of forming children's social cognition through experimental lessons. The predicted characteristics of development in children's social cognition are: 1) idiographic or fragmentary viewpoints of children develop into the ability to organise matters with a central focus on more intrinsic viewpoints through the transition period around grades four and five; 2) the experience of perspective-taking promotes children's social cognition. On the basis of this, experimental lessons were conducted in order to demonstrate whether children's social cognition of economic events can be promoted by the cognition of locations taught through the experience of perspective-taking. The lessons were implemented using subjects of children in grades three, four and five, and learning effects among children in grades four and five were found. According to these results, it became clear that around grades four and five is an appropriate stage for lessons which integrate and give shape to information based on typical student viewpoints, and that the experience of perspective-taking is an effective learning activity.
A cross-sectional investigation of elementary school children's absolute pitch identification abilities was conducted. 462 elementary school children were examined with real tone tests and a questionnaire. The following results were obtained: (1) 3% of participants possessed absolute pitch and 8% showed considerable absolute pitch identification ability; (2) participants with higher absolute pitch abilities identified pitches correctly regardless of key color or pitch range, whereas those with lower abilities had difficulty in identifying black key pitches or pitches out of the middle octave range; (3) a positive correlation was found between years of musical training and the level of absolute pitch ability, although the relation between the beginning of musical training and the level of absolute pitch was unclear; (4) absolute pitch appeared to develop from accustomed pitches (white-key pitches or middle range pitches) to a wider range of pitches (black-key pitches or pitches out of the middle range); and (5) a considerable number of participants with no musical training tended to recognize the middle C pitch.
The present paper proposes a new direction for media literacy education in Japanese Language instruction. Recently, discussion concerning media literacy education has become more common. However, the location of media literacy education in Japanese Language Instruction is not clear yet. As a result, many reports of teaching practice show a confused state of affairs in this field. To improve this situation, I focused on "Relations between the ego and the author of information" and "Criticism". This model is considered to be the basis of the entire study activity.
It is a purpose of this study to clarify the learning process to develop personality from the viewpoint of relations with individuals and groups through elementary school home economics education classes. Therefore, the characteristics of learners are clarified and also details of three classes are provided which focus on "the learning will", "the acquisition of learning", "life experience and skills at home", and "relationships with other people". Through the results of these analyses, we suggest how to compose an effective learning process for pupils in home economics education.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze learners' reception of teacher speech, and to clarify how it can influence learning. Here, I focused on an actual reading class, and analyzed the classroom discourse. Analysis of the classroom discourse indicated the following: 1. Investigation of the learners' reception of the teacher speech. The functions of the teacher speech involved, "questions", "explanations", "instructions", and so on, but the main function was "questions". 2. Teachers usually respond to students' answers with evaluation, and this causes the learners to make connections with their own reading, and enlivens dialogue between learners. It also promotes learning. 3. By recognizing differences in the style of the teacher speech, learners recognize the different types of learning. And it causes learners to run engage in higher quality interaction. The conclusion is that learning is improved by effective teacher speech.
The purposes of this study were to examine the general concept and hypothetical structure of an effective physical education class in high schools and to important factors (and their sub-components) based on theoretical validity and concrete data. As a result of an examination of content validity and some pre-surveying, four factors (enjoyment, outcome, ways of learning, and cooperation), and 42 items measuring them, were selected. The survey was administered to physical education teachers and students selected at random from high schools in F prefecture. Data from 99 teachers and 938 students were used in the analysis. Accepting various limitations of this study, such as definitions of technical terms, subjects' characteristics, question items, and statistical procedures, the following could be concluded. 1) The four factors stated above which were tentatively selected for this study are valid as factors of effective physical education classes, and similarly, 40 items (Nos. 8 and 26 are the exceptions) could be considered as representative items. 2) A significant difference in six items out of 40 items was found in the ideal ways that teachers and students regard effective physical education classes. That is to say, that teachers and students do not always consider all of the 40 items to be valid in evaluating classes.
This study aims to highlight and analyze potential constraints on the implementation of English language education in Cambodian primary schools. The results of self-assessment questionnaires conducted with 89 primary school teachers indicate that teachers do not yet have sufficient knowledge of English and adequate skills to teach English to pupils. In addition, the results from interviews with school principals and concerned policymakers further reveal that English language syllabi, textbooks and other teaching materials are not yet available. Moreover, the actual number of learning periods in primary schools at present is well below the international standard; thus, it would be difficult to allocate time for learning English as another subject even if the teachers and curriculum were ready. However, considering the opportunities pupils will have for survival and advancement if they possess a good command of English, and acknowledging the fact that they will have a better chance to master English if they start learning it at an early stage, the government as well as aid agencies should make greater efforts to gradually deal with the above mentioned constraints.
The purpose of this study was to research the process of developing practical teaching abilities using ethnography in review meetings in Home Economics teaching practice. The construction of lessons, circumstantial judgments, communication and control of high school students are discussed. Through the process of reflective awareness by students on their own teaching, through encouragement and presentation of alternative ideas by students when observing peers, and through advice and pointers towards later teaching from their supervisors, practical teaching abilities were fostered.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the contents of high school history textbooks in Japan between 1881-1894. The conclusion is summarized as follows: The history textbooks analyzed in this paper are those which first differentiated between the educational functions of Japanese and foreign history. Those educational functions are based on two views of history, and it was based on these educational functions that the content of the textbooks was determined, and later revised, up until World War Two.
The aim of this paper is to review the recent trends and to suggest some prospects in the research on mathematics education in Japan. Based on the works of specialists in each research domain/area in mathematics education, the reviews of the recent (1991-2000) research papers presented at the Annual Meeting of Japan Society of Mathematical Education for the ten years were summarized to show the recent trends, including results and issues. Then, the common prospects for some research domains/ areas in mathematics education were characterized by three key-words of "integration" of theory and practice, "cooperation" between researcher and teacher, among researchers, and among teachers, and "criticism" of theories and research results through a critical analysis. The prospects with the three concepts would be expected to promote the further development of research and practice in mathematics education in Japan.