In the study, I report several data analyzing scores obtained from administration of attitude scales towards arithmetic and a self-report inventory on the impression of mathematics to 83 men, and 40 women, who are sixty or more of age, and attending classes for advanced age persons held at two areas, rural and urban, in Akita Prefecture, Japan. The result of the study reveals that there are sex-related differences in like-dislike of arithmetic, and local differences in some impressions of mathematics, and that favorable attitudes towards arithmetic and good impressions of mathematics are not caused to increase as people undergo better teaching of arithmetic and more use of mathematics.
The aim of the present article is to describe the structure of Japanese Language Pedagogics, a new interdisciplinary science, focused on the relationships of other sciences to JLP. Basically foreign language pedagogics (FLP) should be a system. The system means that the components of FLP are interrelated and intertwined. Concretely the components are (1) Methods of teaching Japanese as. a foreign language, (2) Japanese linguistics, (3) applied linguistics, (4) Japanese culture and literature. The set of the elements cannot be the Gestalt, the system. The Gestalt, or JLP only exists: as was mentioned above, it has four elements or aspects. The elements must not be separated from the Gestalt (JLP). Japanese Language Pedagogics is quite different from "National Language Pedagogics" meaning Mehods of teaching Japanese as a first language. JLP has two sides: general Methods and special Methods. The former means Methods common to any foreign language education. JLP is one of the special Methods. In this connection, I studied the relationships to JLP of other related sciences: philosophy, pedagogics, psychology, physiology and linguistics.
A diary study in second language learning or teaching is an analysis of a second language experience which has been recorded in a first-person journal. This qualitative research method has recently been employed by SLA researchers especially in the field of classroom process research or classroom-centered research. Although the diary study is a relatively new field of SLA research, interesting results have been published by such researchers as Schumann and Schumann (1977), Jones (1977), Bailey (1980), and Brown (1983). The second language diary study has five major advantages. (1) It is holistic; it allows for investigating "all" aspects of classroom language learning or teaching experience. (2) It is exploratory and creative; it not only generates new hypotheses concerning the process of SLA but also discovers new factors playing a significant role in classroom language learning or teaching. (3) It deals with "natural" classroom data; the amount of research intrusion is probably least of all possible SLA studies. (4) It sheds light on hidden psychological variables in SLA (e.g., affective factors, cognitive style, learning strategies) as well as on individual learner variables. (5) It can be of immediate use for diarist-learners or an aid to their second language learning. Although there almost inevitably remains the problem of subjectivity or ungeneralizability, the diary study is worth conducting especially in Japan, where foreign language learning takes place almost dominantly in controlled, formal instructional settings. Further, very little investigation has been done so far concerning the actual process of SLA and factors which will influence classroom language learning or teaching in the context of various schools in Japan. It is strongly suggested that future second language classroom-centered research focus more on qualitative studies particularly to explore unobservable, psychological aspects of language learning or teaching, and to allow new hypotheses to emerge for further experimental investigation.
Although the training of the discriminating ability for foods' weights is very effective for bridging the gap between theory and practice in the learning of the eating habits, it has not been carried out effectively in home economics education. In the first stage of the present studies, three following sensory tests were examined. 1. A test by using three different weights which were specially made and prepared for the test. In the test, the subjects put each weight on the palm of their hand one by one, and distinguished the rank of the weights. 2. A test by using five different kinds of foods which had different weight individually. The way of the test was the same as the above-mentioned test. 3. A test by using the same five different kinds of foods that were used in the second test. The way of the test was also the same as the second test, except that the subjects had to guess the foods' weight. The subjects were 843 pupils and students of elementary school, junior and senior high schools and university. Results were as follows: 1. In the test by using three different weights, both grade and sex differences were not observed. This fact suggested that one's weight perception was completed before the early stage of the age. 2. On the other hand, in the tests by using five different foods, grade differences were clearly observed, while sex differences were not observed in principle. 3. These results suggested that the extent of discriminating ability of foods'weights is not dependent on the effects of weight perception, but on some other factors involved.
A survey was made using Questionnaire of Learning Strategy (QLS), developed by the author, to study the learning strategy of under-achievers. The subjects were students attending a technical high school in Tokyo at night. It was carried out in the form of asking the students ways and styles they preferred about regular examinations. Since exams and evaluations are the issues of great interest to students, their honest response could be expected. The most appropriate condition for their strategy would be provided by the teacher. Four factors are to be drawn by factor analysis. 1: existence of example answers, 2: number of answers, 3: anxiety, 4: strictness of correct answers. Factor 1 seems to be closely connected with "producer strategy", which is typical for under-achievers. There seems to be "fear" and "anxiety" in common behind all these four factors.