Most teaching-learning activities are in fact carried out through language activity in accordance with educational goals. It is, therefore, necessary for teachers to understand the structure and function of language activity, which makes much for the world-comprehension on the part of pupils or students. The world-comprehension is premised on the physical existence of the teaching subject and the learning subject. Its basic picture is linguistically represented in the structure of personal pronouns, and the mutual communication or communion between the both subjects has to be attained by means of "look-perception." The first stage where the world-comprehension begins to differentiate and develop from the subject-object fusion is the one where concepts start to form themselves and names to transform themselves into words. The second stage is the period until the commutative reciprocal viewpoints have been established. At this stage the world-comprehension begins to assume some kinds of modality. One is the epistemic modality in which, linguistically, some modal words or phrases are added to a simple proposition. Another is the deontic modality which reflects the social constraints imposed upon personal behaviors. The third is the artistic modality which, linguistically, shows itself in the addition of various kinds of modifiers to a simple proposition. Those linguistic facts will be basic part of the knowledge the teachers should have in helping their pupils or students to comprehend the world around them.
The study of the historical process (1872〜1945) of the education of the Constitution in Japan, especially in the view of its system, is helpful in that we think of today's education of the Constitution.
On this paper, an outline of Science Teacher Education Project (STEP) in England has been described from "Innovation in Teacher Education," which is one of STEP publications. In the STEP, a conscious effort has been made to show wherever possible how theoretical matters bear on actual classroom practice. It seems that the STEP suggests a new trend forward the curriculum improvement of education for prospective science teachers in Japan. Effectiveness of STEP materials has been also discussed.
As for school textbooks of science, we investigated the characteristics of their structures, depending on inquiry of objective distributions about the following items. (1) the number of nouns/1000 characters (2) the number of technical terms/1000 characters (3) the length of sentence (4) the number of paragraphs/1000 characters The science textbooks that we have analyzed are those in the 'Seikatsu Rika' days at the present time and from the fifth to the sixth grade, Consequentry, in the first place, we have obtained the following results about the distributions. Those of item (1) are normal distributions. Those of item (2) are Polya-Eggenberger distributions having weak- transmission's character rather than Poisson distributions being derived from random distri- bution. Those of item (3) are Earlang distributions rather than logarithm-normal distributions. Those of item (4) are Poisson distributions. Secondly, about comparison between the science textbooks at the present time and those in the 'Seikatsu Rika' days, we have obtained the following results. As to item (1), the ones are more frequent than the others. As to item (2), the one of the fifth grade is most frequent than the others and as to transmission coefficient also, the same result has been obtained. As to item (3), the ones are shorter than the others. As to item (4), the ones are more frequent than the others.
It is the subject in the future that teachers enlighten children's humanity. The children's humanity is composed of three factors. They are subjectivity, independency, and creative power. It is the purpose of this study to clarify the way of organizing the learning activities of children in order to educate their humanity. To solve the problem, the learning activities of teacher-child is analyzed into the following three points of view. They are: 1) the structure of child's perception, 2) the organization of cognitive growth, and 3) the analysis of the characteristic of natural phenomena According to the results of analyzing the teaching and learning activities, the teaching plans from elementary to senior high school were developed.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the necessity of chemical education for students in home economics teacher training course in university. The students' consciousness on the necessity of chemistry was searched by questionnaire, and the following results were obtained. (1) The students in this course have correct understanding of the necessity of the knowledge of chemistry in learning home economics, and the consciousness grows higher as they move up to a higher grade (2) They consider that upper secondary school pupils need the knowledge of chemistry for comprehending the contents of home economics subjects. (3) They recognize that a teacher must be well-grounded in chemistry for instructing the contents of home economics subjects, and the recognition increases after teaching practice. From the results above, it was concluded that lectures and experiments of chemistry must be sufficiently prepared in the curriculum for the students in home economics teacher training course, and that the contents of home economics subjects must be closely related to those of natural science subjects in secondary school.
Concerning how to guide pupils to creative a dance, I believe that it is easy for any students to create a new dance at any stage of their growth development. The differences between the stages of their growth development are: the types of a dance the first grade students create are more concrete, where as those that the third grade students do are more abstract. In other words, the lower grade students are apt to execute to the basic levels of the dance, while the more advanced students perform with exactness and smoothness. In junior high school, the students (the first grade 43, and the third grade 40) had classes in a creative dance. I have analyzed the dances created by them. The following points have been made clear: 1) Concerning the time of the work created by them: the times of their works both groups create are the same. 2) Concerning the presentation of the theme: concrete images have been frequently presented in the first grade, on the other hand abstract images have been seen often to be present in the third grade. 3) Concerning the combination of the dance movement: The first graders create the work by using the inconsistent combination of the movement, while the third graders created one by using the harmonious combination of movement. 4) In the future, we will plan the program that will enable the first grade students as well as the third to present the theme symbolically. 5) In the future through the process of teaching and learning of the different graders, I hope to find out the best and most effective way of teaching a creative dance.