This research compared the results of a problem-solving approach which focuses on 'how to learn', with a systematic study method which focuses on skills and physical fitness. This study was carried out with children in elementary school grades five and six. The comparison of these two different types of classes showed the high value of a group-based problem-solving approach as regards heart rate and exercise intensity. Furthermore, questionnaire data on student attitudes showed that with this approach there was a favorable reaction ratio on these three factors: (1) endeavor; (2) the development of skills and power; and (3) new discoveries. These factors had a tendency to increase with the progress of a lesson. Furthermore, students' comments on classes became more diversified and more concrete with this problem-solving approach.
The first purpose of this article is to predict the quantity of English verb phrases, which elementary school students are expected to be exposed to by using "English Notebook", distributed by the Ministry of Science and Technology. The research shows that several verbs, such as do, go, have, like, make, play, say, and so on, appeared much more frequently than in the Language Corpus. These verbs are the core of sentences and essential in interacting with other people. On the other hand, there were some words, such as get, give, know, take, think, and so on, which were less frequent. The second purpose of this article is to analyze the verb phrases in the language context of "English Notebook", in which form-meaning connections can occur, and to discuss how much can be expected in children's cognitive learning. According to the analysis, it is considered that children's further cognitive learning is feasible in some lessons which embrace not only token frequency but also type frequency of verbs. Absorbing English verb phrases, which are chunks, as examples, can lead children to significant cognitive learning, in which they are able to notice the schema formation of verbs (kick X, throw X) from the sound input.
It is said that the term "scientific ability", from scientific literacy of PISA2006, corresponds to the term "scientific thinking". The definition of "scientific ability" includes the abilities to: (1) judge whether a problem can be solved scientifically, or not; (2) critically evaluate experimental findings. These two abilities were excluded in the general definition of scientific thinking in previous studies. Therefore, the definition of scientific thinking in this research comes from this definition of "scientific ability". In addition, this research aimed to develop assessment questions for evaluating this definition of scientific thinking. In this research, the term "scientific thinking" was defined as comprising five sub-categories, including the two abilities mentioned above. Assessment questions which corresponded to the five constructional abilities were developed. Validity was examined based on an investigation intended for pupils in the sixth grade of elementary school. It was judged that the assessment questions corresponded to the five constructional abilities. A total of 14 questions were developed from these constructional abilities.
The present study examined whether students improved their text quality by revising after one month as opposed to revising after one day. In the first experiment, 27 high school first graders wrote two compositions, and revised one the next day, and the other after one month. It was found that in the case of revising one month later, students increased the number of words, made more text-based revisions, and raised the text quality. On the other hand, in the case of revising one day later, they made almost no changes. Furthermore, these effects were apparent in the case of students whose text quality was low. In the second experiment, 30 high school third graders, 28 of whom estimated that they were poor at writing, revised their texts after one month and improved the text quality. These results suggest that delayed revision raised the text quality of high school students, and that it was an effective revision strategy for students who were weak in writing.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for analysis to establish a new social studies class, and to analyze how to reform social studies classes. There have been some problems in research on social studies lessons in Korea and Japan. Firstly, there has been a tendency for lesson analysis to focus on teachers' instruction and theory. Secondly, there has not been enough focus on the classroom. Thirdly, the research has not focused one children's cognitive improvement in social studies classes. Fourthly, there has been a lack of an adequate framework to analyze the social studies classes in detail. Therefore, I propose a new framework, "Holistic Analysis of Lessons" for the analysis of social studies classes. The benefits of "Holistic Analysis of Lessons" are as follows: firstly, it intends to integrate a comprehensive analysis of the children and the teachers in the class; secondly, it will be more empirical; thirdly, this framework can lead to more improvement than before; fourthly, it may be useful in improving the classroom teachers.
The purpose of this study is to examine idealistic "contents" and "literacy" in technology education by analyzing pre-service teachers' perceptions. The participants in this study were pre-service teachers enrolled in the technology education program of three universities; 123 complete questionnaires were received. The important factors of "contents" and "literacy" and the relationship between "contents" and "literacy" were clarified by using cluster analysis and measuring correlations. As a result, it was suggested that "contents" of technology education have sub-factors such as "assessment and utilization," "procedure and design," "society and safety," "materials and living things," "information processing and use" and "manufacturing and technology". It was also suggested that "literacy" is composed of these factors: "ability of social activity," "ability of technological activity," and "ability of assessment activity". Pre-service teachers regarded the cluster "assessment and utilization" as the most important factor to improve students' "literacy". It was revealed that "information processing and use" lacked a connection with "literacy". Therefore, this element needs to be reconstructed in order to be useful for technology education.
This paper considers the following: learners' extrinsic motivation in Physical Education classes can be classified into several stages according to levels of learner autonomy. Moreover, learners with higher motivation will learn better, and effective instruction by teachers will lead to greater autonomy. Verification of these ideas was carried out with questionnaire data. The results of this verification were as follows: The learners recognized that extrinsic motivation has three stages. They were "regulated stage", "identified stage", and "integrated stage". A higher level of motivation led to greater learning. The teacher's instruction was focused on three functions. They were "supporting autonomy", "supporting relationships", and "supporting competence". Teacher regulation correlated negatively with "supporting competence". "Supporting autonomy" was most effective in advancing learner autonomy. "Supporting relationship" and "supporting competence" enhanced the effect of "supporting autonomy" after students reached the "identified stage". Conversely, teacher regulation had a negative effect on it.