The purpose of this article is to examine how the 'learning-sleep' materials that we have developed for secondary physical education work in physical education classes, and to discuss the effectiveness of these materials. First, we have made up a handbook for sleep education, and then asked for evaluation of the handbook among physical and health education teachers and sleep instructors. As a result, the handbook was widely acclaimed for the following eight features: (i) plenitude, (ii) originality, (iii) clarity, (iv) level of challenge, (v) level of importance, (vi) degree of expectation, (vii) degree of utilization, and (viii) degree of demand. The first four points concern the content of the handbook, and the last four the publication itself. Next, we have made out a sleep program based on the handbook, and furthermore examined how it worked in physical education classes. In the student evaluation, we obtained high marks, in particular, in terms of the satisfaction rating, understandability, appropriateness as a teaching aid, and future use. In the teachers' and lesson-observers' evaluation, the following comment was obtained: while some modification might be required concerning technical explanations of materials and the class structure, the lessons should work for the improvement of the current sleeping conditions of junior high school students. Combined the evaluations of the teachers, instructors, students and lesson observers, we are sure that the learning materials shown in this research will have some value in providing beneficial sleep education at junior high schools.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the structure of "the competence of Devising and Creating" which is an evaluation standard in junior high school Technology Education. The question items were developed based on the evaluation standard which was made by a research organization, the Board of Education and textbook companies. As a result of factor analysis, key features of "the competence of Devising and Creating" could be extracted. The first five factors related to the design and production parts of learning about manufacturing: "productive ideas", "prospects for production", "setting aims / problems", "choosing tools / materials", "efficiency of tool use". One other factor was found which related to daily life: "practical use in daily life". In addition, based on thought placement of the chronological order, structure equation modeling was carried out to examine the degree to which the five factors related to design and production have an effect on the factor "practical use in daily life". It could be clarified that the five factors have either a direct or indirect influence on this factor.
The aim of this study was to devise a learning support software aiding primary school teachers to teach physically expressive exercise in elementary P E. classes, which usually tends to be seen as difficult among R E. teachers, and to investigate its effectiveness. This time, the main focus was on whether the number of years of teaching experience affects the effectiveness of the learning software. Both experienced teachers and less experienced teachers conducted the experimental classes using the learning software "The Power of Nature." The movement data were captured and the questionnaire surveys were carried out on learners, and then the results of the surveys were collated. As for the classes taught by experienced teachers, it could be seen that the teachers smoothly let the learners into the class and prepared the learners mentally for the creative work. In the classes, the number of learners who positively responded to this type of exercise significantly increased as they progressed through the learning units. As for the classes taught by less experienced teachers, the number of learners who could cooperate with friends and move without self-consciousness significantly increased. As for the specific movements that learners chose, significant differences were not found.
This study observed the school system for physical exercise and sports activity from a historical perspective by viewing the course of events from the postwar period up until the present. From this observation the ideal role of sports education was examined. Organized systems tend to vary according to their purpose, as well as with the increase and decrease of constituent members. Also, the existing school district system has certain limitations and homogeneity is generally found in elementary schools. Thus, in order to create connections among those elementary schools, the present paper suggests an alternative realistic measure, which is to utilize junior high school districts as broader zones of activity.
The aim of this paper is to show that the study of grammar was established as contents in KANBUN education when KANBUN became a compulsory subject. The following things have been determined as a result of the examination of textbooks: (1) In the introduction unit, the study of Kaeriten (marks indicating the Japanese meaning of the texts of Chinese classics), Okurigana (Declensional kana endings), and, Saidokumoji (Twice-Read' Chinese characters) was established; (2) other units included the study of difficult grammar; (3) a table supporting a systematic understanding of grammar was attached at the end of the textbooks. The following have been pointed out as factors which led to changes: (1) Teachers requested that the textbooks deal with the study of grammar; (2) teachers thought that the ability to translate KANBUN into Japanese was important training; (3) in the university entrance examination, importance was given to the capability of translating KANBUN into Japanese.
From the 1980s China has adopted the idea of lifelong learning. One of the goals of physical education has been to foster good health and all-round ability in people. However, in fact, there is a close relationship between traditional sports policy and this more recent aims for physical education. They still both affect the situation as regards "physical strength development". It is still commonly the case for the management of people's physical state to be controlled by the government. In this study I examine historical changes in sports policy and the aims of physical education in China. I clarify the relationship between them, and related problems, from the viewpoint of "physical strength development" and suggest ways of reformation.