We have already published three series of articles in this bulletin. Article (I), 'An Error Analysis of Japanese Students' Listening Comprehension and Dictation of English Radio and Television Weather Forecasts' focused on the receptive aspects of communication. In it we looked at various errors quite often displayed by Japanese students. Particular attention was given to common mistakes in listening comprehension of English radio and television weather forecasts. Article (II), 'News English for the Training of Ability in Expression' was a continuation of the previous article mentioned above. In this article we paid particular attention to successful media workshops created and produced by students who reached a rather high degree of communicative competence by studying through the media. In article (III), 'A Style and Broadcasting English' students were first required to read Bartleby, the Scrivener written by H.Melville, and then listened to a broadcast of it produced by the Voice of America. Later, they watched the movie version of the story. From such an intensive audio- visual study, students learned to recognize differences of styles used in these three type of materials-the novel, the English radio broadcast and the movie. This article (IV) 'Teaching English Sentence Structures with English Songs' is a continuation of the previous ones mentioned above. In this article, we use songs to teach students English structures effectively. Most students enjoy English songs even if they do not like studying. Many English songs are so rhythmically written that if one uses them in teaching English structures, students will enjoy studying. Through English songs, they can also master pronunciations difficult for the Japanese, spellings of words, English grammar, as well as the social and cultural backgrounds of the language without difficulty.
I made inquiries about student attitudes toward the study of English language in 1984. The subjects were 535 junior high school students in Tottori City. The questionnaire consisted of 20 items which were evaluated by a five-point scale. The data were administered by the computer, which showed a significance (1) between the items and the likes & dislikes of English, (2) between the items and the school years, and (3) between the items, and the likes & dislikes of English and the school years, P-2, P=4, P-9 and P-10 were the items which showed a significance (P <.O5 〜.01) in all the three tests. The items which were found very positive were P-2, P-4, P-5, M-18, M-19 and M-20. Last, I mentioned the implications of the results.
The school physical education should be proposed as the "intelligent" physical education because to be required for the curriculum research in the modern information society finely selects the instructional contents. The contents of its "intelligence" are "the behavioral programming ability" and/or "the motor goal-making ability" which are mainly related to the functions of the frontal association area (prefrontal area) in the cerebral cortex. According to the development of the human motor function from a phylogenetic point of view on the cerebellum, the archicerebellum is involved in the control of posture through the input-output connections with the vestibular system. Because the paleocerebellum recieves both cortical and peripheral inputs and feeds back to the cerebral cortex and to the periphery for updating the on-going movement (closed loop), it may be part of a follow-up correcting mechanism or a comparator. Since the neocerebellum recieves the input from the frontal association area of the cortex and feeds forward the output to the motor cortex (open loop), it is involved with the association cortex in preprogramming of the intended movement (Allen & Tsukahara, 1974). Firstly, therefore, the control of posture develops in the human motor function, next, the motor control by the correcting mechanism of envolving movement, and finally, the behavioral program-dependant motor control. The control of posture and the motor control by the correcting system are related to the basic motor patterns in a human being. These functions begin to develop from about four or five years old and roughly reach to the same as adult until the low grades of the elementary school. Until this period, therefore, the basic motor pattern should be developed in the school physical education. Since the behavioral program-dependent motor control begin to develop from about nine or ten years old, it was proposed that the serial information processing capacity was promoted in the teaching-learning process used the ball game as a material from the high grades of the elementary school.
The present study examines the teaching steps in motor skills teaching-learning processes in terms of the following two points. The first is whether it is possible to deepen the recognition by presenting more than one skills (an objective principle) to attain the same goal and at the same time by introducing group discussion in the technique recognition process. The second is whether it is possible to select, and to practice, the prime method by experiencing and comparing several techniques in the skills learning process. The finding of our experimental classes were: 1. Recognition changed strikingly in most of the recognition process. 2. The achievement was comparatively higher in skills learning processes and the instructor's intended method showed remarkably higher results as compared to the others.
In order to make a good subject matter of home economics education, especially in the field of dwelling education at junior high schools, the vicissitude of the Course of Study for Junior High Schools, from the beginning of the Meiji era through present, are clarified in this paper. The Course of Study or the textbooks compiled by the government were picked up for every period to survey the subject matters of dwelling education. Occasionally, there are some subject matters which has been often left out without any good reason from the Course of Study. And also, the Course of Study was sometimes changed by political reasons or economic reasons. In the Course of Study enacted in 1958, there was no dwelling education field because of the technical disciplinecentered curriculum. But, many subject matters about dwelling education were instructed in the field of home craft education; this is the good confirmation to regard the dwelling education as important.