The Japanese "Kanji"--"Ijō" and "Ika" are used, individually or together, sometimes with carelessness on writing as well as on speaking. Originally, "I[以] means "with" or "together". For example, "5 Ijō [5以上]" means 5 or more, not meaning "more than 5" . Likewise, "5 Ika [5以下]" being not "less than 5" but "5 or less". Students learn notations of inequality in the second grade Math class, the Japanese "Kanji"-"I[以]" in the fourth grade Domestic Language and the combination use of "Ijō" and "Miman [未満] (meaning "less than")" in the sixth grade Math. However, while they grow up under the conditions of careless talks of people around them due to TV, radios, magazines and so on, correct knowledges they acquired in school education are apt to become fuzzy. It is very important for school education to emphasize that "Ijo" and "Ika" should not be used at the same time. In addition, it is hopeful that students should be instructed to learn the combination use of "Ijō" and "Miman (= under)" and also the one of "Cho [超] (= over)" and "Ika" , as is usually the case with legal words for practical use.
Art education is divided into two types, an expression and an appreciation, in the province of contents of education. Activities of expression involves the fields of Formative Plays, Painting, Printing, Sculpture, Construction, Design, Handicraft. We can suppose the constructive method as one of activities of expression common to these fields. In this paper, I extracted the existence of constructive method from a relationship between a plastic art and art, and from the current of times of an art education by plastic art, and considered it. Moreover I expressed how to deal with the elements of art and design and a visual language. By means of them, I made clear the connection between two fields, expression and appreciation, and I attempted to unify these fields by the constructive method, on the basis of the traditional way of thinking that we understand the fields of expression and appreciation on an equal level. Consequently I proposed the systematicism of visual education and appreciation and comprehension by visual communication as the development of art education.
We analyzed that any teaching-actions of teacher influenced children very strongly, through skin resistance responses of all children in the teaching-learning-process. As a result, we were able to summarize about strategy of teaching actions of teachers in the following six factors. 1. Expecting to respond or react to children. 2. Activating children through experiences, presentation of real things, teaching materials of video tapes, and OHP. 3. Stirring up the student's feelings of wonder and surprise through the teacher's actions and teaching materials. 4. Explaining new concepts and knowledge which children have never learned. 5. Stirring up the student's feeling through the use of humor. 6. Giving K ・ R to children.
This survey was carried out in 1990 to find out a degree of achievement of coeducation in homemaking and view to the future's problems. Information was obtained by questionnaires sent out to the full-time and part-time teachers in Tokyo. The results are as follows; 1) The teachers had been promoting of the coeducation bravely having a great many teaching experiences. 2) Study and training of teachers was done by themselves using books or magazines about coeducation. 3) For part-time teachers, the chances of training were a few. 4) Student's learning condition was no good, and was needed much teaching load for the part-time teachers. 5) The facility of the classrooms for homemaking was not arranged. These results show a degree of achievement of the end of Mutual Extension system. Therefore, the educational condition should be arranged for the new system of coeducation in homemaking.
The author's aims in this paper are to make clear the features of the selection of teaching materials in Japanese and American elementary school music text- books, and to propose the problem to be solved in the study on music education in Japan. She compares Japanese textbooks with American textbooks focusing on "theme of tune" of vocal and instrumental materials. The features of each textbook were indicated as follows ; 1. American textbook : (1) There is not great difference of proportion between each kind of " Theme of tune ". (2) There are many kinds of " theme of tune " in each grade. (3) There are a lot of tunes on " amusement ". 2. Japanese textbook : (1) A few sorts of "theme of tune" take much proportion, and there is great difference of proportion between those and other "theme of tune". (2) There are not all kinds of "theme of tune "in each grade. (3) There is a large number of tunes on "nature" and on "emotion". (4) The number of tunes on "emotion" increases rapidly in 4th,5th,and 6th grades.