By using four magnets and five electromagnets, we showed that there is a good linear correlation between the values of magnet flux density of each N pole measured with a magnetic flux meter and those of DC obtained with a clamp meter. Thus, the magnetic flux density of a magnet can be measured with a clamp meter. The differences of magnetic flux density at each distance from N pole of alnico magnets also agree well with those of current measured with a clamp meter. Our experiment was applied with second grade students of a public junior high school in Nagano Prefecture to investigate the magnetic flux density of a magnet using a clamp meter. It was found that students could measure the magnetic flux density, that they were satisfied with the present study and that most students have true recognition of the nature of a magnet. They also thought that a clamp meter is a useful teaching tool for the study of a magnet.
The objective of this study was to develop a five-year educational program in home economics education from elementary through junior high schools designed to encourage students to think about themselves and their families through a "class on death". A "class on death" means "learning related to death" and "learning for building self-esteem". For "learning related to death", we developed learning materials that helped students to accept death in the third person, in the second person, and in the first person according to developmental stages. Furthermore, we created a tentative plan that introduced "learning for building self-esteem" as a way to facilitate students acquisition of skills that would make them more mentally prepared to accept death. Through these learning methods, we believe that we can influence students' search for the "meaning of life" and their "self-actualization (building a soul)".
Literary texts have been in the spotlight as a tool for focus on form. Focus on form, however, is originally expected to occur in ordinary communication. Thus, the use of literary texts for focus on form may bring some differences. Whilst previous studies have discussed the common aspects between focus on form and reading literary texts, they have not paid attention to the differences between them. In this study I focus on English poetry and poetic communication, which surrounds English poetry, and discuss what traits they bring to focus on form. In the end I point out four aspects which focus on form with English poetry is expected to show: (1) learners work on various parts of the text simultaneously and as a result their reading speed becomes slow; (2) learners pay attention to the linguistic form of marked linguistic expressions; (3) the mapping of meaning onto linguistic form involves weak implicature and marked linguistic form; (4) learners' comprehension process should be encouraged to stop as a result of their paying attention to linguistic form.
This study aimed to examine the factorial structure, relationship of factor interaction, and gender differences of junior high and high school students' values and beliefs in a physical education class. The questionnaire item was composed of 50 questions representing six elements (enjoyment, outcomes, learning, keeping rules or promises, cooperation, and 'can-do' statements). The survey was administered to 1866 junior high and high school students, and data from 1444 students (age: 15.0±1.42) with valid responses were analyzed. Seven factors were identified: 'can-do' (F1), enjoyment (F2), teamwork (F3), keeping rules or promises (F4), learning (F5), cooperation (F6), and outcomes (F7). They all had large eigen values. The degree of the relationship between the factors differed. Gender differences were found for 'can-do' (F1), enjoyment (F2), teamwork (F3), keeping rules or promises (F4), and cooperation (F6). Male students placed importance on 'can-do' (F1) and enjoyment (F2), whereas female students placed importance on teamwork (F3), keeping rules and promises (F4) and cooperation (F6).
Referring to the results of PISA administered by the OECD in 2003, the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (2006) publicly announced the decline of Japanese students' reading literacy. Inoue (2006) clarifies the definition of reading literacy which is measured in PISA and shows how it differs from what has been generally considered within the subject 'Japanese language', in order to indicate the necessity of special teaching / training in various subjects in school. Thus this study aims to develop an effective "students' learning workbook" for nurturing PISA-type reading literacy in physical education.
The purpose of this paper is to explore pedagogical possibilities of engaging student teachers in producing and performing picture stories. As a research method, I first reviewed literature related with the nature of picture stories and ways to produce them. Based on this I had student teachers produce and perform picture stories for primary school pupils. The research revealed that the project helped the student teachers improve the following seven qualities: 1) understanding of children's culture; 2) composition skills; 3) media literacy; 4) the ability to cooperate with other students; 5) communicative competence; 6) narrative skills; and 7) the ability to understand children's reactions.
To answer the question, "what is the nature of mathematical knowledge?" is one of the important tasks in mathematics education. The purpose of this article is to point out the following as features of mathematical knowledge, by using the examples of Aristotle's syllogism and its Boolean algebraic expressions. (a) It is not always possible to separate the content of some mathematical knowledge from its representations. Modification of the representation of mathematical knowledge necessarily leads to change of the content to some degree. Therefore, we are not always able to present teaching materials in an easier way by modifying their representations. (b) Modification of the representation of mathematical knowledge facilitates the generation of new ideas and the development of mathematical knowledge. This is also important from a perspective of mathematics education, because the sequential system or hierarchy of learning mathematics reflects this feature. Therefore in developing teaching materials in mathematics classes, we should consider not only the merit of a modification from abstract representations of mathematical knowledge to concrete representations of them, but also the demerits, such as losing generality or multiplicity of use with which abstract representations could be endowed.
Dynamic assessment is one kind of formative evaluation in which teachers infer the problem from the wrong answer of each child during the learning process and assist by suggesting how to improve, enabling a concept to be reconstructed. The objective of this study is to apply the method of dynamic assessment, used until now in facilitating development, to the unit on "characteristics of water solutions" in 6th grade elementary school science. This method is applied by using prompt cards for students when they are correcting tests. The teacher can confirm the level of students' knowledge and skills in short term (approximately one week after the completion of a unit) and the long term (after approximately three months). The results are as follows: 1. Analysis of the total scores for both problem types (a long sentence description that requires a logical step-by-step explanation and a non-long sentence description that is affected by the existence or non-existence of memory) showed a significantly higher level of accomplishment for the experimental group than for the control group, both in long and short term. 2. As regards analysis of the results for problem type, as mentioned above, the experimental group showed a significantly higher level of achievement than the control group only for long descriptions, in the long term.
This article has four aims: (1) to follow the history of English language education research and of related academic societies in the field; (2) to present a summary of the areas of research that have been established in Japan; (3) to list existing well-known academic societies related to English language education; and (4) to review articles contributed to The Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan (ARELE). This journal has been published by The Japan Society of English Language Education for the past 19 years and is thus one of the most influential academic journals in the field of English language education. As a conclusion, the authors further discuss and explore some desirable directions of English language education research in the future.