When we wish to systematize the school curriculum, first we should consider its aim, "What do we teach the school curriculumn for?". Education is to act on a child in order to bring him up as a human being. A characteristic of a human being or human nature is that he is always wishing to live more humanly though his life is based on animal instincts. To live more humanly is to live searching for value. Accordingly I reached a conclusion that the aim of the school curriculumn is to cultivate the natural mind searching for such values as truth and beauty. Hereafter I want to construct from the above-mentioned aim a system of the school curriculum.
The aspects of assessment in teaching-learning process consist of aspects in knowledge and skill dimension, creative ability dimension and attitudial and affective dimension. In addition to these dimensions, having the technique to assess the cognitive structure of learners, as the 4th dimension, we shall have a very useful technique to assess learners synthetically. One of techniques to assess the cognitive structure is Word-Association Test (WA-Test). In the present paper, the procedures of WA-Test are stated. Especially applications of WA-Test for researches of advance organizers and practical teaching-learning processes are stated and discussed.
Based on Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Affective Domain modeled by Krathwohl et al., we developed a Likert-type mathematics attitude scale, easily applicable for prospective elementary school teachers of Japan. The scale, which was called Minato Likert-type Mathematics Attitude Scale or simply MILMAS, did not so highly satisfy the unidimensionality that its Rep. was over 0.90. In spite of this, other examinations of the scale revealed that the scale had several suitable properties expected. It is hoped that MILMAS will be utilized in the future investigations of modifying or changing attitude of prospective elementary school teachers of Japan toward mathematics.
In this research we focused on the possibility for the pupils to understand the function concept under the appropriate guidance and tried to examine how much they could master it. Especially in the revised course of study, the teaching materials for functions are recommended to be taught synthetically. We focused our attention on this point of the subject. In order to examine, two types of teaching were taken on trial for comparison: one is "Inquiring type" intensively dealing with the function concept, and the other is "Construction type" based on a synthetic method. As the result we proved that, in the fourth grade (of the elementary school), a basic idea for the function concept begins to be formed in themselves, and that the synthetic teaching should be partly mixed with the intensive teaching.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the meanings and uses of Japanese words like ittei, onaji and hitoshii referring to a specific relationship among concepts in science. All of these words appeared in three kinds of science textbooks for junior high school students have been collected, and analyzed for meanings in individual uses. The results are summarized as follows:
(1) Each of onaji and hitoshii is used in two ways.
(2) Word ittei is used in four ways.
(3) Adjective onaji is most commonly used to show sameness, identity or equality.
(4) There are some restrictions on their uses in accordance with characteristics of scientific terms. For example, hitoshii is generally used to show equality or equivalency concerning scientific terms which indicate quantity or numerical value.
It has been suggested for correct scientific literacy that the meanings and uses of these words which are multivocal and of difficulty in usage, must be intentionally taught to pupils in science teaching, because these words frequently appear in science education.
The authors have attempted to apply a method of measurement used in physics to music education. The results obtained as to single tones were already reported in the previous paper. The present study aims at investigating pitches and intervals of a series of tones produced vocally by children and making the training of vocal pitch more successful. A part of pitch measuring apparatus was newly developed. In this paper, children's vocal sounds on the most fundamental scale - c^1 major - were analyzed and discussed on the basis of the twelve-equally-tempered scale. Characteristic differences with age and sex proved to exist in pitches and intervals of their vocal sounds.
This article reflected psychologically on musical affect experience and it is studied about the following points. (1) Affection is one of the feeling. It is followed contusion and bodily change in consciousness, behavior as emotion, but the point which differs from emotion is that it relates deeply with musical beauty (value). (2) It is because the bodily change is followed feeling senter (hypothalamus) which is equal to entrails senter and the influence appears in bodily change when this feeling senter is excited. (3) Affect experience is experience which every affections and all ego are unified by evaluation, and is accompanied with deep mental feeling.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the basic viewpoints about the teaching method to make the learners grasp the learning tasks more effectively. For this purpose, the authors investigated the differences in performance between two learning groups (control group and experimental group), which performed under different learning conditions of grasping the task in teaching-learning process of glide butterfly. When the authors constructed the teaching program for the experimental group, three viewpoints were considered. 1) To present the task as a whole at the initial stage of learning process. 2) To present the learning task based on the sequence of task. 3) To make the learner grasp the learning task through practical activities. In the other hand, these three viewpoints were not considered in relation to the control group. The results were as follows: 1) Among the learners who showed lower performance level in the pre-test, the swimming distance attained by the learners of experimental group was recognized significantly greater than that of the control group in the final-test. 2) The learners of experimental group recognized the whole-part relationship and the sequence of the task better than the learners of control group. These findings seem to suggest that the three viewpoints considered facilitate the comprehension of learning task so that the learning activities become more effective.
When children work out something, they go through the following processes: bringing out some questions consciously, acquiring information about them, finding out solutions to problems and making them in practice. And they again make some questions about the finished works consciously and repeat the spiral processes as - information - thinking - practicing. To make them learn in class following this example is called "technical spiral learning." Every stage will be represented as follows: 1. "question" stage - bringing out some questions consciously towards the intended behavior 2. "information" stage - acquiring and arranging information about the same questions 3. "Thinking" stage-thinking about a better solution from information 4. "practice" stage-practicing according to the solution
It goes without saying that the education for social norms is important in forming personality. This report proves the education for morality and that for law should be given at the same time. After that it discusses what moral education and law education should be in social studies. Furthermore, it tells about some problems on the law education from the view point of moral education.