The purpose of this study is to explore a change of perception through videotape observation and the experience of 'Nanchu Soran', and to explore into teaching materials agreeable to the learners' interests. The subjects of this research were 118 university students and 51 elementary school teachers. The results are as follows : 1. The subjects tend to have serious and dark perceptions of 'Japanese folk dance'. 2. Though 'Soran-bushi' and 'Hanagasa-ondo' belong to the same 'Japanese folk dance' category, the perceptions of each of them are different. 3. In the case of 'Soran-bushi', the different arrangement of music leads to different choreography and different perceptions. 4. Through videotape observation of 'Nanchu Soran', open and bright perceptions are increased. 5. Through the experience of 'Nanchu Soran', powerful perceptions are increased and difficult perceptions are decreased. Because of the changes of these perceptions, the value of teaching materials of 'Nanchu Soran' can be seen.
To clarify the change of the role of fathers, the father presented in the course of study and textbooks of home economics were studied from the comparison with the father presented in the Monthly Journal of the Ministry of Education. The Monthly Journal of the Ministry of Education pointed out the importance of the father's role with regard to the policy of socializing youngsters. Both home economics education and the Monthly Journal of the Ministry of Education indicated that fathers should have direct involvement in the raising of their children. Home economics education has presented fathers as active participants in housework since 1977. The Monthly Journal of the Ministry of Education began to recommend the father's role in housework after the introduction of policy of gender equality. However, in contrast to home economics education, which is not gender-specific, the Monthly Journal of the Ministry of Education still maintains a difference between the role of the father and that of the mother.
The purpose of the present paper is to propose a basic educational guidance model according to the analysis of the contents and structure of learners' cognitive processes. Based on the causal relationship model obtained through covariance structure analysis and previous studies of educational guidance in manufacturing classes, we constructed a framework for educational guidance in learning activities, including elements such as recognition of purpose, clarification of contents, trials and training, detailed contents, and preparation for actual manufacturing. Additionally, we propose this framework as an educational guidance model for a standard manufacturing class in the curriculum, and examine the specific application to the manufacturing process of cutting iron with a file. This educational guidance model corresponds to the framework of a previous study. This model will be better suited for manufacturing classes.
This study forms part of research to implement classes aimed at developing reasoning skills in children. This short thesis first looks at prior investigations of reasoning skills, which are a constant challenge for children. Following this, it discusses the design of a classroom curriculum to develop reasoning skills that focuses on the use of Harry Stottlemeier's Discovery of the Philosophy for Children Program. The curriculum targeted reasoning skills that are often difficult for children to learn, including the detection of underlying assumptions, the identification of suitable reasons, syllogistic reasoning (categorical), and the contradiction of statements. In order to do so, chapters 1, 8 and 9 of the program were used in class. The results showed that the average scores on reasoning skills tests conducted both before and after the class were significantly different and that reasoning skills development through in-class study was effective.
Equity has its own problems of definition and interpretation. There are many equities in education: equity of predisposition, equity of access, equity of treatment, equity of teaching and equity of outcome. Disparities in mathematics achievement and enrollment in mathematics between equity groups have concerned educators for many years. A brief and selective overview of historical evidence of education reform in the U.S. and international societies precedes a review of developments in research on equity and mathematics education. This discussion explores the trends of equity in these societies, mainly historically and conceptually. Finally, the author considers a redefinition of the equity framework within mathematics education. Based on these considerations, the author identifies some needs relating to the execution of equity goals in school mathematics.
The aim of this paper was to clarify the characteristics of the physical education teacher training program at Columbia University which is the most advanced in the United States. This was done by investigating, in particular, the components of "the teaching methodology course". The pedagogical implications were explored as regards the contribution they could make to the development of the physical education teacher training program in Japan. As a result of the investigation, the following five characteristics of the program at Columbia University were found: (1) its curriculum aims at developing teachers to be a "Reflective Practitioner"; (2) the contents of the syllabus are inductive; (3) the syllabus is arranged in a top-down way; (4) it aims at developing the ability, as a teacher, to create something new. For example planning a curriculum, program or so on; (5) it describes everything in fine detail ranging from the setting of achievement goals to concrete evaluation.
A teaching module based on the interaction between the production of energy and the environment in high school chemistry was developed and trialed in an attempt to develop students' awareness of the chemistry of extractive metallurgy and the heat of reactions as they relate to issues of energy and the environment. It is proposed that these issues should be part of the contents implemented in "Chemistry I" lessons. Through such lessons, students can understand the relationship between the following three points: (1) extractive metallurgy; (2) heat of a reaction; (3) issues of energy and the environment. Students now have much better understanding of exothermal and endothermal reactions.
The purpose of this study is to explain the structure of scope and sequence with regard to the formation of the contents of history textbooks published by Longman in the 1970s and 1980s, and to show the historical significance of this structure. One reason for this study is that preceding studies have not explored the sequence of the contents. Another reason is that those textbook series organize the history curriculum in a novel way and deal with two problems: (1) the gradual development of superficiality in history education; (2) the blind justification of the present approach to history education. Consequently, I explained the structure of scope and sequence concretely in order to overcome these two problems.
This study aims to summarize two things: (1) the process of a distinguished teacher coaching pupils in the lower grades of elementary school; and (2) actual changes found in the children. There are three hypotheses: (1) introducing peer learning situations in an appropriate way which suits the pupils' age leads to their skill development; (2) introducing 'small-step' learning situations leads to the pupils' skill development in children; and (3) there is a relationship between skill development and mental development in children. In particular, (3) has not been discussed in gymnastics classes. However, it is highly plausible that while children continue learning towards their skill development, they will also develop mentally. This study tries to contribute to improvements in teaching by providing objective information regarding children's mental development in relation to their interests and concerns, learning results, learning processes, and willingness to cooperate.