In the teaching of explanatory writing, an inquiry into practical theories from the perspective of learners, with emphasis on their acquired knowledge, is a great challenge. For this paper, I compared and studied two theories; one is that of Nobuyuki Morita, who has worked on his research from the learners' perspective, and the other is that of Takashi Shibuya, who has developed his teaching theory based on a teaching material for explanatory writing. As a result, I suggest "talk" with "others" as a new possibility for the teaching of explanatory writing. As a methodology, I also suggest a practical device to shape learning, using "body of others" and "reading through body" as a unifying theory. When "talk" with "others" that occurs in response to "body of others", further realizes "reading through body", which accompanies physical experience within one's tacit knowledge, learning that develops existing theories and structures can clearly be changed to a new form of learning. This helps learners to reconstruct their skills that support their existing worldview, theories, and structures through actual emotional experiences.
The purpose of this study is to examine how students' thinking set up at the stage of design is subject to transition according to their actual making process and to obtain beneficial suggestions for better teaching in "making class." The students' thinking was examined at three stages of the process of technology classes: pre-production, during-production, and post-production. The results are summarized as follows: the thinking factor of "examination of use conditions" showed high scores throughout the whole making process. The "examination of material and processing method" factor, on the other hand, had low scores. The "examination of difficulty in the processing" factor was subject to much transition in the post-production stage, so much so that it was statistically significant compared with the pre-production stage. Further, the students were divided by cluster analysis into two groups: "active thinking" and "inactive thinking". The former students took every thinking factor into full consideration from the pre-production stage to the post-production stage. On the other hand, the inactive thinking of the latter group was gradually modified by their learning activities, and made a transition in the direction of active thinking.
The purpose of this research is to focus on reviewing and recognizing the differences between "a means of expression" and "a manner of expression", and to study teachers' problems or tasks by way of art guidance. There is a big problem in art education. That is the lack of recognition that the following ideas are in strong contrast. On the one hand, there is the idea that instruction on means of expression in the framework of the school curriculum whilst on the other hand there is the idea that students acquire their own manner of expression. Some teachers misunderstand the meaning of "teach". It is not to teach a manner of expression but to make students find diversification, to make them "pursue", "discover", and "acquire" their own manner of expression.
This paper is based on Fact-Teaching and Textbook Analysis and tries to clarify characteristics of Curriculum Development. As a result, the contents of the teaching materials are organised to reflect that the living zone of children constitute all the main places where they spend time. Moreover, the sequence of places in the teaching materials expands concentrically in accordance with the development of the child's living zone. Based on the Fact-Teaching and Textbook Analysis, this paper attempts to examine characteristics of unit construction. First, according to the results of this analysis, the characteristics of unit construction are as follows: 1 One characteristic of unit construction is from the viewpoint of gathering teaching materials in the child's living zone. It looks at the fitness of a child, their relationship with the environments, relationship the life, daily events, an essential understanding of learning through concentrated teaching of a typical example. 2 Second characteristic of unit construction is from the viewpoint of systematizing teaching materials in accordance with the child's living zone. It looks at basic functions such as coping with situations, working with an aim, relating to traffic facilities, utilizing leisure on purpose, having good friends, and "supplying". Secondly, the characteristics of unit construction formed a spiral curriculum. Finally, these characteristics of unit construction must be significant in Comprehensive Studies. However, the actual conditions in an area is important for unit construction in Comprehensive Studies. Therefore we must take it into consideration that teachers' views of the child and learning have a considerable effect upon Curriculum Development in Comprehensive Studies.
In English language teaching it is important to develop learners' linguistic knowledge. In order to fulfill this need researchers have studied how to control learners' attention to form. Along with these studies there are claims that the literary reading process may be an effective way to focus learners' attention on form. They, however, have not explained enough how this process works effectively. This study, therefore, aims at describing the mechanism by which the literary reading process can be a useful means for second language acquisition. It is hoped that this theoretical investigation will contribute to future research. What readers should heed is that the claims of this paper are hypothetical and a starting point for future research.
"Integrated Science A" was set as a new science course of study in 1998. In order to achieve the purpose of the "Integrated Science A", a teaching module of the "Integrated Science A" was developed. The developed module was practiced in the classroom, and an educational assessment was carried out. It is proposed that the STS approach should be implemented in "Integrated Science A" lessons dealing with the Natural Environment and Material Change. Through such lessons, the science knowledge acquired by science study was related to a student's daily life, and was not only understood, but also led to an understanding of the global environment which is one of the purposes of STS. In addition, the validity of the developed curriculum was examined and verified.