In this article, I analyzed reading comprehension strategies instruction on reading “rhetoric” of expository texts critically for higher graders of elementary school. The purpose of this analysis is to discuss the possibility of learning conditional knowledge by higher graders and to gain suggestions for constructing curriculum that fosters learning of the knowledge. This analysis yielded the following three outcomes: First, higher graders were found to be capable of learning conditional knowledge of selecting and integrating comprehension strategies for reading “rhetoric” critically if the teacher provides long-term deliberate instructions. Second, it was ascertained that the stepby- step curriculum proceeding gradually from “instruction focused on reading “rhetoric” by selecting or integrating strategies” to “instruction focused on expressing critical opinion” was effective because many children were able to express their critical opinions by using strategies which they had acquired. Third, this study helped to improve and elaborate the curriculum, by which the teacher could help students overcome their reading difficulties and foster their learning of conditional knowledge.
In this article, I clarified one of the developments of reading instruction by the thematic unit in elementary school Japanese Language Arts, in particular, pointing out the existence of efforts that related the thematic unit and life experience writing (Seikatsu-Tsuzurikata). The subject of consideration here is the inschool research of Showa 49 in NAKAUCHI Elementary School, Mino City, Gifu Prefecture. NAKAUCHI Elementary School adopted a method called the thematic unit for reading instruction and let the children express the results of their learning in the school essay collection. This collection was influenced by life experience writing (Seikatsu-Tsuzurikata). In other words, it means that efforts were made to relate the thematic unit and life experience writing (Seikatsu-Tsuzurikata). However, there remained some issues: for example, the teachers of the school were not able to share the concept of the thematic unit among themselves, and it was not made clear how to develop an instruction in the subject other than “labor”.
The roles and boundaries of school subjects have become blurred because of increased interest in generic skills. Owing to this situation, concern regarding the integration of social studies and literacy has increased in the United States. The aim of this study is to clarify the methods of integrating literacy into social studies through an investigation of approaches in the United States. This study reveals the following three types of approach: 1) educational content-based approach; 2) educational method-based approach; and 3) educational aim-based approach. As a result of comparative analysis, this study posits that the degree of emphasis on the framework of social studies and the level of developing the ability to effectively get involved with society will become increasingly higher from the first to the third type of approach.
Learning guidance of reading in Japanese Language Class aimed at nurturing an “independent reader” that can grasp the existence of “self” as a relationship with society through reading. It pointed out the importance of “self-dialogue” constantly questioning himself. However, in the actual field of learning guidance, there is a situation in which learner cannot truly become a place to pursue “self” by being exposed to evaluation from others. Therefore, in this research, while considering the theory of “Dialogical Self” proposed by Mr. Hermans, et al. As a theoretical framework, we examined the theory and practice of Mr. Ohkawara. By relating learners to the problem situations they live, Mr. Ohkawara sees the problem as oneself as a learner and learners acquire new perspectives by others’ opinions. This argued that the learner positions the problem surrounding himself as a position within himself and is created by dialogue between other positions within himself and the problem. In this way, we clarified the significance of Ohkawara’s practice and also picked up what we could not pursue “self” from the actual description of the learner, and clarified the cause and effective means.
The importance of making learners formulate hypotheses by themselves as an entrance to problem solving and inquiry in science has been pointed out. On the other hand, in previous research, factors that influence the quality of thinking in hypothesis formulation have not fully been studied much. Therefore, in this research, we created three survey questions asking for formulating a hypothesis, and conducted a questionnaire survey targeting high school students and analyzed factors that affected the rationality of hypothesis formulation. As a result, the following three findings were obtained: 1) confirmation of goal improves the rationality of hypothesis formulation, 2) rationality of variable identification process is influenced by values that emphasize creativity and need for cognition (NFC), and 3) the rationality of variable identification process is influenced by rationality of recognition causality process.
In this paper, we reveal the “modernization of education” implemented from the 1960s to approximately the 70s as being reflected in the self-made teaching material, “The Human History” by the educationist and pioneer Haruo Shirai. “The Human History” is a social, ethical teaching material oriented in commoners, but not the history of the nations nor any political leaders. We aim to look into the objectives and preparation process of the material and visualize the followings: 1) the fact that Shirai self-prepared the materials without consulting with any professional historians; 2) the material is based on the history of society and common people, not limited by national historical depictions with concrete evidences; and 3) the evocation of “reality” from children from an approach of production.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a design of teaching for encouraging students to reread texts deeply by teaching reading closely Ryunosuke’s novel “Jigokuhen” based on a study of the teaching concept and classroom practice. To understand the tragedy of Jigokuhen, the first half of learning process was designed for focusing the setting, characterization, and the unreliable narrator. Then, the second half was for approaching to the limit of Yoshihide’s abilities as an artist, reading an essay on art, and using the idea Honkadori and Tsukeku to write Tanka and show their understandings of the tragedy of an artist. Through the process, students learned to find the way of reading Jigokuhen deeply and the pleasure of literature.