In order to improve the self evaluation bases to be suitable for properties of teaching materials of chemistry, we have analyzed the learning attitudes of students on the basis of their improvement aims and self evaluations which were obtained in lessons of "Chemical Reactions and Ions". Their attitudes were investigated from viewpoints of evaluation bases in self learning abilities. The characteristics of their attitudes to teaching materials of chemistry are as follows. They tend to be interested in improvement aims in setting learning targets and achievement aims in evaluating. The greater part of self evaluations belong to recognition fields. They want to learn process of science and estimate themselves to be able to explain learning matters. They scarcely think much of significance of learning. These are common characteristics of junior high school students. Teachers must consider these characteristics when they arrange evaluation bases of self learning abilities in teaching materials of chemistry.
The word of homemaking (Kateika) as the subject name was the first to use in the cource of study of youth school in 1939. But, some scholars, teachers and students who majored in homemaking education have often the wrong thought that this education begun after World War II. The purpose of this study is to consider the reason why they have misunderstood. The Ministry of Education enacted the regulation on vocational continuation school in 1893. As parents had no faith in production of sewing in public school, a few girls went to the continuation school. Many young women went to the sewing shop or private school for sewing. The vocational continuation school changed name to the youth school in 1935. The women's teacher training school for youth, the predecessor of normal school for youth in 1944 did not lay down home- making, but, home economics (Kaseika). The women's classes of normal school for youth were late to found in six large cities or didn't found. This is one of the reason why they made an error in fact.
The major purpose of this basic study was to identify the factors of enhancing students' motivation toward learning science. In the beginning, we developed the "Questionnaire on Motivation in Science Class (QMSC)" as an instrument which included items related with motivation toward learning science. The QMSC was administered in the Junior High School attached to Hyogo University of Teacher Education in November 1988. The sample consisted of 126 third year students. There were 74 males and 52 females in the population. The reliability of the QMSC was 0.85. The 31 items of the QMSC related with motivation toward learning science. Through the use of factor analysis of the 31 items, we were able to hypothesize the existence of 5 underlying factors depicting the characteristics of students' motivation. These factors were shown as follows: Factor I : Scientific curiosity Factor II : Inquiry Factor III : Mathematical treatment Factor IV : Measurement Factor V : Difficulty of materials Factor I and II were found out to have enhanced motivation toward learning science among the learners'. Conversely, Factor III and IV seemed to have reduced it.
Two purposes of this study are the reason why we started to use the word "subject matter" as unit of curriculum organization in music study and the study of either the word "subject matter" is suit to unit of curriculum organization. And the result will be summarized as follows. (1) In music study, the reason why we started to use the word "subject matter" as unit of curriculum organization is reconsideration of criticism to education of experimentalism after the World War E. (2) Conditions such as purpose, content, method of teaching purpose, expectation of result are need to be added at unit of curriculum organization. But the word "subject" is used for the level of teaching material and content of teaching, so it is difficult to use the word "subject matter" as unit of organization.
This paper will deal with the necessity of visual education as a characteristic part of art education. There are so many images in our daily lives. Visual information has been increasing too much, caused by the great expansion of mass media. In this present situation, visual education for visual communication is as necessary as both expression and appreciation, the main fields of art education. As the method of visual education, the structural learning of fundamental artistic elements and visual language is so important. Visual language could be structurally compared with language. In this paper, I studied three semiotic key terms, "langue", "parole" and "langage" to understand the structure of visual language. Based on this study, I made the meaning of visual education in art education clear. Additionally I researched the educational possibility of visual literacy.
Egoism and popularization cause one of serious problems in our modern society, because they have brought about the general tendency in which the viewpoints based on causationism, material civilization and economy are regarded more important than those based on our objectives in life, our minds and morality. In order to solve these problems, all of our subjects in education should be contributed to the accomplishment of "the whole man education". Every scholar who participates in these subjects must cooperate with one another for the solution of these problems. For children should be understood and educated as a whole and the elements (bases) of the ways of looking at things will be clarified by these scholars. The academic background of a person will be required more than his abilities these days. From this point of view, I believe, it is time to scrutinize what education is in the true sense of the word and what roles the subjects in education should play and to initiate the education for cultivating the natural abilities of children. It is urgent that the subjects in education and the subject-pedagogy, which will be helpful in cultivating the human abilities and vitality of every child, should be constructed at the earliest opportunity.