This study aims to get an understanding of the recent tendency of home economics education in secondary education in the State of Baden-Wiirttemberg in Germany and to compare it with home economics education in Japan. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In "Hauptschule", the subject which deals with home economics is called "Hauswirtschaft /Textiles Werken". It is a compulsory subject and its content is substantial and of fundamental vocational training. In "Realschule" since 1994, the subject which deals with home economics is called "Menschen und Umwelt". And the subject which deals with industrial arts is called "Natur und Technik". Namely, home economics education and industrial arts in secondary education are independent of each other. 2. Since 1994, the course of study for secondary schools prescribes the aims and contents of the instruction in areas such as natur, environment, information science, water, family, health, drug addiction, gender and the neighbors who are in need of helps. These areas are systimatically dealt with in and across all subjects including "Hauswirtschaft/ Textiles Werken" and "Menschen und Umwelt" aiming at education for the whole man.
In this study, 2 types of microteaching practice (MT) were compared. One, which is called as the "T method", allows the provision of instruction enrichment before the practice teaching in made, and the other, which is called the "F method" is undertaken with the provision of feedback of the practice teaching. The number of students allotted included 115 for T method and 143 for the F method. Female students of the training school for kindergarten participated in this experiment. The students in each method were divided into 14 groups, and then one student-teacher selected in each group gave lessons for kindergarteners. As a result, it was found out that the F method is superior over the other in providing concrete and essential recognition of early childhood education which include the way of writing teaching plans, the skill of speaking to children, and the weight of giving consideration to early child's experience. Moreover, the students for the F method provided chances for more self-improvement, and so the subjects found less difficulty with their practice teaching. As for teaching skill, the F method allows the student teachers to gain a better understanding of their knowledge on the introduction of teaching, the way of revising their teaching strategies to better ones, and the process of acquiring better teaching attitude. Taking the burden of supervisors and students also into consideration, the F method, which needs fewer interviews for advice before teaching practice, is more desirable than the T method.
In order to develop teaching materials about the influence of Ultraviolet (UV) radiation on living things, it is important to understand children's awareness of this kind of radiation. In this research, we used a questionnaire to gather information on children's awareness UV radiation. Moreover, we also gathered data on teacher's awareness of it. The research subjects included fifth grade elementary school pupils, second year lower secondary school students, second year upper secondary school students, and second year university students. The major topics included in the questionnaire are UV radiation awareness, terms related to UV radiation awareness and how the knowledge about UV radiation are obtained. We investigated on the topics of UV radiation in each class with the presence of their teachers. The results are as follows: 1. As for the terms related to UV radiation, the level of awareness possessed by older students' is seemingly higher than those of the younger students. 2. As for awareness of UV radiation, the results are similar in all the groups. Most of the students obtained knowledge about it from TV and other media sources. 3 . Most teachers think that they will teach about the depletion of the Ozone layer in class in the future.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the conceptual content of "Creative Music making" and to consider the kind of instructions made by teachers who also wish to encourage children's voluntary activities. The conceptual content is defined both in terms of the conceptual structuring of sounds into music and in terms of the ability to use these conceptualizations. Also, we consider here how the subjective direction made by teachers could make children become the subjects of their own music making activities and, at the same time, can teach them conceptual content. Furthermore, the concrete teaching method at the practical level is elaborated from the analysis of experimental lessons in "Creative Music making" at upper-class level of an elementary school.
It is possible to say that the modern society has been developing in order to meet mass production, distribution and consumption of the "objects." It, therefore, goes without saying that the 3 R's (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) have been functioning as minimum essentials to upkeep this society. By the same logic, the society of today is now developing for the same activities but of the "concepts," such as a mass of information. In this sense, the above 3 R's could be interpreted as "input, output and processing" in the system of information processing devices. However, it is obviously impossible for people to cope with the current social change autonomously unless the perspective and significance of the new processes are sought of creatively. For example, if we do not initiate reform to the present social structure supported by mass production and consumption, it is obvious that we may mislead our spaceship "the Earth." Highly information-oriented society is considered an essential system to deal with this kind of issue, and this society will be supported by ability to cope with the above information processing with a critical viewpoint, that is, the media literacy. Since both developed and developing countries are on board the same spaceship, the development of the media literacy is a crucial educational issue of today in both kinds of countries. From the viewpoint of science education, in this paper we mainly took some class activities and then examined their role in developing countries in the development of media literacy from the view of critical literacy. In science education, verification in scientific process was highlighted as a mediator for the confrontation between school knowledge and everyday knowledge. Through the discussion, the process was also examined as an aid to develop the abilities to collect and select information and furthermore to facilitate the transformation of students' worldview.
Taking 2741 participants from 6 regions in Japan, "A Survey on Life Environment" was conducted. This study attempted to determine the current condition of children's life environment from the perspective of biology and social sciences, and to examine factors that causes the lack of exercise among children. A comparison of the group with well-balanced exercise, nutrition, and sleep with the group without enough exercise. The lack of exercise was attributed to the factors like playing indoors with video games etc., being emotionally disturbed, going to juku (cram) schools, holding passive attitudes, and not progressing through developmental stages. In addition to addressing those factors, the relationships among those factors were analyzed. From this study, the researchers made the following suggestions, to wit; 1) the main case of children's lack of exercise is their incompetence in adapting to the environment and in using their motor skills, and 2) there is a need to develop a curriculum which includes problem solving processes, and also allows students to integrate their subject area knowledge/skills with their cognition of their own physical competence and life environment.
The purpose of this paper was to clarify how the views about science education and human relations of Genjiro Oka, a science text compiler of the Ministry of Education and Vivian Edmiston Todd, a specialist of Education Division in the C.I.E., had influence on the education policies about elementary school science education in occupied Japan. Through the study of documentary records, the results were as follows: 1) Edmiston, having stayed in Japan from September 1946 to February 1949, was able to discharge various duties related to science education and she could not help entrusting the practical works for science education to officers of the Ministry of Education. 2) In a conference report she prepared, Edmiston stated that Oka worked mainly at the Advisory Science Committee, and both of them seemingly agreed on various aspects. 3) Influence upon the process of connection between Oka and Edmiston was limited since the physical condition of time resulting from her busy job and the human condition to both of them had caused their acquisition of common views about science education.