Research on good language learners' strategies (e.g., Naiman et al., 1978; Rubin, 1975) has indicated that good language learners willingly and accurately guess, have a strong drive to communicate, are uninhibited about mistakes, take advantage of all practice opportunities, monitor their own speech and that of others, think in the target language, focus on both structure and meaning, and address the affective domains of language learning. More recent research (e.g., Ehrman & Oxford, 1989, 1990; Oxford & Nyikos, 1989; Oxford et al., 1988, 1993) has shown that (a) effective learners use a variety of appropriate cognitive, metacognitive, and social-affective strategies for both receptive and productive tasks, while less effective learners use strategies less frequently, have a small repertoire of strategies, and often do not choose appropriate strategies for the task, (b) females use a wider range of language learning strategies than males, and social strategies are more popular among females, and (c) various factors (e.g., motivation, academic orientation, learning style, cultural background) influence learners' choice of learning strategies. Other studies involving strategy training (e.g., O'Malley et al., 1985) have shown that learners can be trained to use learning strategies although effectiveness of strategy training has not been consistently confirmed. It has also been found that the most effective strategy training involves telling learners explicitly that a particular strategy is likely to be helpful, teaching them how to use it and how to transfer it to new situations and tasks, and linking training with regular classroom language learning activities.
One hundred-ninety female students in college were administered a questionnaire pertaining to sociopolitical attitudes, prosocial behavior and social conventional behavior. The purposes of this research were (a) to examine with a questionnaire the female students' prosocial behavior and the frequency of such behavior and (b) to examine the students' current social conventions. The results of this research indicate that 80 % of the subjects approve prosocial behavior and actually do so. (e. g., give their seat to an old person who is standing in a bus or a train) Comparing active prosocial behavior and passive prosocial behavior, the subjects use similar dimensions for viewing others, but they tend to show more passive prosocial behavior than active prosocial behavior, because active prosocial behavior requires more risk than passive prosocial behavior. With regard to the conventions, the students do not classify occupations (e. g., a male sick nurse, a male nurse, a male mistress) according to sex at present, and they do not think homosexuals strange. Both prosocial behavior and social conventions are influenced by the current of the present day. The moral sense shown in this prosocial behavior and conventions seem to change with the times.
Micro teaching practices (MT) were carried out with one hundred and fifteen female students of first grade at the training school for kindergarten teachers. We identified five MT effective factors - the total effect of the lesson, how much the student teachers learnt by themselves and how self-motivated they were, how observant they were on the learning process, the feedback from their lesson planning, and understanding the difficulties faced during the actual practice -. We made sub-categories from the these factors on the Scale of the Effect of Micro Teaching on Kindergarten Student Teachers (EMTKS) . It should be pointed out that one student-teacher in a group would give two different lessons and then the other colleagues in the group observe her lessons. It was later possible to show the effect on the student-teacher of teaching and observing in EMTKS. In conclusion it is reasonable to maintain that this method is useful for kindergarten student-teachers not only to improve their teaching skills, but also to become more aware of the process of selflearning and the level of their own motivation.
In New Zealand, the main center for science education research was the Learning in Science Project (LISP) at the University of Waikato. It has explored the development of children's ideas in science and devised an alternative teaching strategy aimed at revealing these ideas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the constructivist view reflect on children's understandings in Science Curriculum improvement in New Zealand. The authors tried on the spot investigation and analyzed the Science Curriculum documents by which the Ministry of Education have published with the constructivist view. The result of the analysis was as follows : the series of this Science Curriculum improvement was not the content based curriculum out of date, but based on constructivist viewpoint.
This paper has made it clear numerically how much the structural thinking and understanding of students is in the learning content of mathematics and how much the difference of their structural thinking between the grade and the upper grade is in the very same learning content. I performed the experiment by using the method of the tree concept mapping. Many students of a junior high school, two senior high schools and a college took part in the experiment. The tree concept maps drawn by the students were analyzed by five teachers with a transfer coefficient. As the result, the following facts proved to be obvious. (1) In the new learning content, the values of three average of the transfer coefficients for the maps drawn by the students of the junior high school, the senior high schools and the college are almost equal. (2) In the very same learning materials of the junior high school and the senior high school, the value of the average of the transfer coefficients of the maps drawn by the students of the college is about 0.09 larger than that of the students of the junior high school, and is about 0.06 larger than that of the students of the senior high school. (3) The value of the average of the transfer coefficients of the students who understand the learning content structurally is about 0.43 larger than that of the students who don't understand it structurally.
The purpose of this study was to construct teaching theory and method for blocking in volleyball, by clarifying a placement of blocking in present games according to each technical stage, besides fact-finding about coach's point of view and teaching method for blocking. Results : 1. Blocking has been offensive that points by blocking in present game are from 3 to 4 points or more of 15 points. 2. When two or three blockers could jump to block against attackers, the percentage of blocking return, receiving opponent attack, and opponent attack miss was higher than one or no person blocking. 3. According to advancing each technical stage, main offensive pattern is changing from simple play to combination play. As a result, it is too difficult for two or three persons to jump to block. 4. Generally coaches have only a superficial understanding of blocking, because they said, "Short players and players having low jump ability don't have to block. " and "They don't have to practice blocking, because it doesn't seem good effect. 5. When we consider blocking is difficult, coaches have to teach players blocking from the beginning, through a long time schedule.
A new school curriculum has been in force since 1992. It differs from the old one in kind and in that it places emphasis on an independent attitude towards learning in schoolchildren. Furthermore it seeks to foster creativity in the pupils as well as powers of expression, thought and self-awareness. These things may be considered a vital and intrinsic part of education in a Japan which to-day is a world leader in areas of culture and economics. The purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship between the new curriculum and the teaching of art in schools. In it I describe the circumstances in which the new curriculum emerged, the social trends of the 1980s and changes in attitudes towards teaching. I also discuss the role of art as a school subject, the recognition of the value of self-expression and objectivity, and the ways in which creativity may be fostered and techniques of expressionacquired. Finally, I show how these things can assist in developing an independent attitude towards learning in schoolchildren and moulding them into adult human beings capable of responding and adapting to therapidly and dramatically changing international community in which we live.
For the purpose of the obtaining effective suggestion on quiding educational principle of living science, in which environmental preservation and resource saving are well taken into account, a research was made to investigate the concerns against environmental problem and the conduct in daily life of students including 131 males and 192 females (total 323) registered at Kumamoto University. High concern with the environmental problem was noticed for both male and female students and the daily behavior of female students was rather favorable for the above problem. Analysis on correlation between various actions showed that in addition to guidance of public administration and self-interest school education influences significantly on examinee's behavior.