A comparative study on consumer education within Homemaking between Japan and the United States was held to obtain some recommendations to consumer education within Homemaking in Japan. Compared materials were syllabuses from Kentucky, New Mexico, Nevada, Alaska, Oregon, California and Oklahoma in the U.S. and the syllabus by Ministry of Education in Japan. The results were as follows; 1) Consumer education within Homemaking in the U.S. was classified into four types; they were a. independent area type, b. involved in home management type, c. "consumer and home management" area type and d. leaded by consumer education type. 2) Consumer education objectives within Homemaking in the U.S. emphasized decision making, personal and economic independency, money management, in general; but, their scope and respective goals were different from each other states. 3) Distribution type of respective goals into each Homemaking area is different between Japan and the U.S; that is, common distributions to Homemaking areas were recognized in the U.S., while more than 80% of the goals was shared by home management and foods areas in Japan. 4) As far as cognitive domain of educational objectives was concerned, the lower level categories such as knowledge and comprehension and higher level categories such as synthesis and evaluation were found in different ratio by states in the U.S.. In Japan, the lower level categories of knowledge and comprehension occupied 60%, the lower three categories shared 92%. On the contraly, in the same school level of California, the lower three categories shared only 22%. This finding is the most controversial educational problem in consumer education and Homemaking both in Japan, I think.
Based on the structure of a science discipline (Earth science), natural system is divided into two types; hierachical and mutual interacting systems. A core of curriculum in science of a Ecological Society emerging in the 1980s is an understanding of ecosystem in nature so that the model of mutual interacting system is most useful idea to form a new paradigm in future science education. Nature-study developed from 1900 to 1940 started with direct observation of child's environment and it established curricula and teaching methodology for the relation ships between children and environment. Therefore, the method already well established in the nature-study movement also may underlie the organization of curriculum and instruction of science education in the 1980s.
In order to grow musically, children need to sharpen their perception and understanding of concepts that constitute the art of music. Acquirement of the concepts is the means of musical growth and development. At this point it must be clear that the instructional content of the music lesson should be the musical concepts. The prime importance in the organization of teaching process is what content must be taught, to what degree and how procedure be designed. In particular, the precise arrangement of subject matter and learning activities appropriate to the instructional content is most significant. The program of music lessons requires precise instructional planning. This article is aimed at presenting our precise lesson program "Meter in Our Music". The program is designed so that children can acquire the concept of meter in music.
A central aim of this article is to argue basic assumption underlying science education. Using historical approach, I explore the basic assumption underlying science-teaching methodology and science curricula-design. As a result, the curricula and the instruction in science education have been influenced by central commitments in philosophy of science. In the 1900 s, educational program in science education promote only a Baconian view of scientific method, and in the period of the movement of curriculum reform which blossomed in the 1960 s, the research in science education was under the control of the hypothetico-deductive model proposed by K. Popper. More recently, contemporary view in philosophy of science suggests that fundamental conceptual change in science was induced by change in central commitments which organize research, suggested by T. Kuhn so that recent programs in science education are based upon the Kuhnian view. The results show that the premise of epistemological fundation of science education originated in epistemology for philosophy of science. Therefore, science teacher training program in Japan should be based upon epistemology of science.
In physical education, the favorable attitudes toward physical education courses must be developed, as well as movement skills and physical fitness. The present study was designed to elucidate whether or not the effect of advance of women teachers' career differ upon attitudes toward physical education courses among the lower grade children in elementary school. With 2,361 school children of the second grades in 61 classes, Umeno Physical Education Inventory was used to measure attitudes, twice at the beginning of April and of July in 1979. The attitude score in "Pleasure" and "Evaluation" scale was gradually higher till 30 years' at the beginning of July. After 30 years', the score was lowered markedly in both scales. This tend shown in "Evaluation" scale is statistically significant at 5% level. Especially, considerable effect of advance of women teachers' career was discernible in the score of 6 items, 'pleasure for the instruction of physical activity courses' and 'deep impression' in "Plearsure" scale and 'cooperative activities', 'sexual consiciousness', 'sharing pleasure among friends' and 'evaluation to the instruction of physical activity courses' in "Evaluation" scale. It is suggested that theses results reflect improvement of teaching abilities which notice individuality of each child and evaluate learning process of child properly.
The Monitor Model (Krashen 1977) claims that adult second language performers have two means of internalizing the rules of a target language: (1) language acquisition, which is subconscious; (2) language learning, which is conscious. Learning is available to the adult second-language performer only as a Monitor which functions only to alter the output of the acquired system. Acquisition has a direct bearing on the output. Acquisition will progress if students are engaged in contextual rich, meaningful communication. Foreign language teaching must be based on real reality. This claims that students should disclose themselves to one another in authentic communication. Communication is an intra- personal and interpersonal interaction. Self-disclosure requires students to discover their real selves and become aware of themselves, which leads to self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between authentic communication and self- image. The results of this research indicate that both are significantly related (r=.43). There is no significant relationship between the average scores of male and female students.
The purpose of the study were, (1) to develope a SD type attitudinal instrument, picking up some of the items belonging to the evaluative dimension from the items of the instrument MSD measuring attitudes toward school mathematics, and (2) to obtain the coefficients of correlation among the scores on the developed instrument, the MSD and the MSD-E. Under the factorial validity, we developed an instrument named MSD-A with four items depending on the data obtained from 281 sixth grade students. There were high correlations among the MSD-A, the MSD and the MSD-E.
This study is concerned with the learning and teaching of geological concept. Using historical approach, the development of the scientific knowledge is divided into three stages: first, characterized by private knowledge and inductive-empirical scientific processes; second, characterized by public knowledge and hypothetico-deductive processes; third, characterized by integrated knowledge and socio-psychological processes. Since the time of John Dewey, all school learning have been based on the way in which scientists learn. From the structure of this discipline, we conclude that Gagne's learning approach is appropriate for younger children, while expository and heuristic styles are appropriate for older children. As a result, school learning within geological area should be promoted by diverse learning strategies.
It has been reported that there are many high school students who dislike chemistry in the science lessons. Furthermore, other researchers have reported some reasons which the high school students disliking chemistry described. One of them is described as follows: there is obscure content in chemistry. From author's experience, it seems that this problem increases in the field of organic chemistry. Because, there are few remarkable change of colors which are attributable to the start of the reaction. In other words, there are few means to confirm the reaction process visually so that it is difficult for the students to realize the lessons of organic chemistry. In order to solve the problem, we carried out the lessons of organic chemistry experiment between two groups. One which was named the experimental group was given the lessons utilizing TLC(Thin Layered Chromatography) which is an analytic tool for confirming the reaction process in addition to referring to their textbook. Another which was named the controlled group was given the lessons referring to only their textbook. The evaluation of learning effects due to utilizing TLC was examined by two methods of the questionnaire of line connecting type of content analysis and the student's description of impression for the lessons. The former results showed that some students in the experimental group selected the favorable subjects, while some students in the controlled group selected the unfavorable subjects. The significant differences of these subjects numbers between the two groups were observed apparently by X^2-test. The latter results showed that some students of experimental group had constructive opinions for the lessons in contrast with those of the controlled group. The fact withdrawn from our results described above means that fine learning effects were certainly produced. Therefore, it is concluded that high school students need to utilize TLC in the lessons of organic chemistry experiment in order to produce the fine results.
Science teachers have been studying learning processes to overcome false steps on students' cognitions, so that students can understand easily fundamental concepts in science. There, however, are not always sufficient researches about outlook on learning and scholarship, which cause false steps on students' cognitions. Students in an information-oriented society are apt to learn by informations without learning from experiences. They regard studies as techniques for good results. We tried to grasp those actual conditions more clearly. As a result of it, it turned out that students satisfy by logic operation for logic without investigating their thinking by observing phenomena and they can correctly operate models though they can not understand the meaning.
The music lessons can be defined as a process by which a child's musical ability is developed through the learning experience. In order to realize the aim of music lesson teachers must design a precise lesson program. The prime importance in the building lesson program is how procedure be designed so that children best acquire the instructional content. This article aims to present the proper basis for organizing the process of teaching a musical concept. Our program "Meter in Our Music" in this article will aid in the necessary methodology of the music lesson.