It is important to know what students know in order to support effective learning in the field of "information and computers" in technology classes. For that purpose, a questionnaire was made to get the student's operational experience of information apparatus, the ability to use information apparatus and the awareness of information apparatus, which are all important elements in developing an awareness of learning. Furthermore, the study endeavored to make clear the relation between operational experience, the ability to use information apparatus and the students understanding regarding information apparatus. The results made clear the following: (1) Many students have experience of using a television game machine, computer drawing programs, games, etc. in their everyday life. (2) Students have a very good knowledge of how to do basic operations with information apparatus. (3) It seemed that experience of computer operation elevates awareness of operational ability. (4) Operational experience such as writing using a spreadsheet, sending e-mails, WEB surfing, etc. develops their instinctive understanding. Moreover, operational experience of drawing and playing games etc. develops both their knowledge and instinctive understanding.
The present study attempted to clarify the structures of children's formative evaluation by a factor analysis in term of how they would view one school hour and evaluate it. Questionnaire items, limited only to basketball, were established based on previous studies, interviews with children and literary studies. The results were then analytically examined. In determining the questionnaire items, those related to the structural features of basketball were inserted intentionally. This was to clarify, by reanalyzing the evaluation factors of structural features, the formative evaluation structures related to the structural features as viewed from the learners' side. The following six formative evaluation factors were extracted, which were considered to be significant for basketball classes: (1) structural features, (2) problem/task solving processes, (3) interest/will, (4) cooperation for role performance, (5) rules and devices for learning and (6) friendly cooperation. By selecting and establishing the items by focusing mainly on structural features and re-analyzing them, the following nine factors were extracted: (1) body/ball manipulation, (2) coping with one's own and the other teams, (3) breaking/maintaining/switching in situations of confrontation, (4) proper practice/operation, (5) effective practice, (6) prediction/judgment, (7) significant space, (8) significant stage and (9) aspects of an all-court game. By making the most of the selected factors for evaluation, a formative evaluation system for basketball classes and structural features of basketball was constructed. The system should have (1) the same number of items per factor, (2) items with the amount of load per factor of more than .40, (3) items dissimilar in meaning, (4) items with definite meanings from the present concept of basketball teaching selected from the structural features of basketball.
The purpose of this study was to determine the necessary physical strength development of students in their career during the Chinese reformation period. From the viewpoint of the Physical Education Guide (similar to Japan's national curriculum guide) and from a historical perspective, the Chinese physical education has been centered on a lifelong learning process. The historical background is considered, examining the objectives, a reformation of Chinese Physical Education is discussed. The traditional aim of physical education in China is to develop a foundation for physical strength development for the purpose of building up the nation and for defense. In the former USSR, the Physical Education System for Labor and National Defense was centered on physical training. The educational purpose of the school gymnasium was underestimated. However, in the school gymnasium the period of lifelong learning develops, not only growth, but also the understanding of physical education, which differs from the conventional "gym". The pursuit of a recognition of the value of a broad personality has led to the realization of one's self as a human being. Therefore, during reform period in contemporary China, physical education must be reformed in line with the theoretical and practical viewpoints for completing the required content of courses.