In order to investigate the improvement of student teachers' abilities to make a teaching plan in practice teaching, the author picked up important items in the process of practice teaching to make a teaching plan and asked student teachers questions about what items they laid stress on in the beginning and the last period of practice teaching. The results were as follows. 1. In terms of making a teaching plan, many of the student teachers answered, in the beginning period of practice teaching, that they laid more stress on "teacher's leading activities in each part of a unit "than any other items. However they answered in the last period that they laid more stress on "pupils' learning activities in each part of a unit". 2. In terms of preparation for actual teaching, many of the student teachers answered, in both the beginning and the last period, that they laid stress on "deepening the study of contents of subject matters". But, when it comes to actual teaching, many of the student teachers answered that they laid stress on "asking questions clearly and instructing definitely" in the last period. 3. In terms of the guidance of guidance teachers in the process of practice teaching from making a teaching plan to actual teaching, many of the student teachers pointed out in the beginning period, that the item to which guidance teachers attached importance was "recognition of the connection of the present lesson with the previous and the next lesson". However, many of the student teachers observed, in the last period, that the guidance teachers emphasized on "making efficient use of teaching tools, data and instructional instruments".
Solution processes of arithmetic word problems generally involve two steps, language understanding and problem solution (Kintsch & Greeno, 1985; Mayer, 1986; Riley, Greeno, & Heller, 1983). Language understanding refers to reading arithmetic word problems and understanding the information conveyed by arithmetic word problems. Problem solution refers to applying a solution plan to problem representation which subjects have generated and to executing a planned operation. The present study focuses on language understanding of arithmetic word problems. The experiment was designed to extend the finding of Tajika & Ishida (1989) that subjects understood the integrated semantic structure in solving word problems. Tajika & Ishida (1989) presented rate word problems to subjects under three conditions. The subjects were six graders in an elementary school and were assigned to one of three groups. Subjects in the 'memory condition' group memorized word problems presented to them. Subjects in the 'writing condition' group wrote down word problems. Subjects in the 'solving condition' group solved word problems. Word problems contained three types of propositions: Assignments, relations, and questions (See Mayer, 1986; Mayer, Larkin, & Kadane, 1984). Assignments were propositions which assigned a value to a variable. Relations were propositions which expressed a quantitative rate relation. Questions were propositions which asked for a numerical value of a variable. Then, each subject recalled word problems. The results showed that subjects who solved word problems recalled as many relations as those who memorized them, and that subjects who solved hard word problems incorrectly made more recall errors of relations than those with correct performance. The results suggest that subjects with correct performance understand the integrated semantic structure which consists of a unified representation of each proposition and the relation among propositions. The question of whether subjects understand the integrated semantic structure in solving word problems is of some interest. The purpose of the present experiment is to test our claim further. If subjects were presented word problems without relations and could generate relations when they were asked to generate relations, this would constitute powerful evidence for understanding the integrated semantic structure in solving rate word problems.
Craft education has both practical and aesthetic aims. It is one of major fields in "Zuga-Kousaku(arts and crafts), "Bijutsu(art)" and "Kougei(crafts)" in school education. However, it is actually difficult to set it up especially in senior high school, in terms of the shortage of equipment, facilities, costs and teachers. In this education, producing process and the arrangement of technique are comparatively clear. On the other side, the whole structure of teaching comparatively clear. On the other side, the whole structure of teaching materials tends to be vague because of so many materials for making craft. It is necessary to make this structure clear from varied points of view. The main subject of this paper is craft education in senior high school. In this paper, we tried to organize the contents of learning process in making craft with regard to materials, technique, tools and functions, and additionally the necessity of the synthetic craft ability mainly by classifying number of materials.
Yamanouchi(1989) claims that when-clause can modify nouns in front of them irrespective of the mornings of the nouns a claim which he ascribes to his supposition that they have three functions, just like the infinitive with to nominal, adjectival, and adverbial. He also maintains that the category "relative adverb" should be abolished. In the paper we argue that his proposals are not totally acceptable, for the "noun+when-clause" constructions can only be grammatical on certain conditions, and the category "relative adverb" cannot be done without.
A new school system started after the World War II in Japan. Surprisingly enough, not so much has been known on the way how the new curriculum was carried out for the five years after the war. The Ministry of Education issued a new course of study (tentative) in 1947. One of the characteristics of this was the introduction of English language education in junior high school which must give compulsory education. This was a fig change in the educational history in Japan. The present article aims to find out how foreign language education was carried out in junior high school during this period. I discussed the essence of language teaching, the methodology, the textbooks, the teachers of English, the educational system and so on by comparison of the pre-war education and the post-war one. It is not clear whether the post-war education completely rejected the pre-war one in every aspect. I also discussed the features of foreign language education during this period.
In this study, history was divided into three categories; a history which is learn in family (HF), a history which is learn in history education (HH), a history which is learn in science education (HS). Elementary school students' ability to treat each history was investigated. Results are as follows. 1) Middle and senior graders are able to treat HF. 2) Senior graders are able to treat HH. 3) 30% of senior graders are not able to treat HS. Moreover, in this study, elementary shcool students' two other abilities were investigated; (1) an ability to accept to past evolution and diastrophism, (2) an ability to relate these phenomena to evidences. Results are as follows. 4) Students can accept past diastrophism. But they hardly accept past evolution. 5) Almost students can not relate past evolution and diastrophism to evidences.
The purpose of this paper is to clear up the ground that make the theory of Burston "Historical Theory" and the fault that made this ground. The ground that make the theory of Burston "Historical Theory" is that The theory made up "Nature of Fact of History" and "Explanation of History". "Nature of Fact of History" is the element that forms the History as a science. "Explanation of History "is the element that forms the History as a school subject. And this is a individual explanation of History as a science. Burston insists that its reason for being is the individuality of teaching history. So he denies the teaching of general law that he recognize its practicality. The fault of the theory of Burston is the lack of practicality on his theory.
We researched the possibility of evaluation and analysis for the teaching-learning process through the skin resistance responce. We obtained the following results: 1. We found that the skin resistance responce is not present while children are concentrating and strong attentive to stimuli, however, for an orienting responce, the value of this resistance responce increases. This means that extreme high mean of skin resistance responce in class corresponds to orienting responce, and extreme low mean of this responce corresponds to concentrating and strong attentive to stimuli. 2. For the mean of middle area for skin resistance responce, we can utilize the proportion of principal component analysis for degree of children's resonance to teacher's activities. 3. We found that the distribution of generation for skin resistance responce is the Polya-Eggenberger distribution. So, for individual subject, we can utilize the positive of the coefficient of spread, which is the parameter of Polya-Eggenberger distribution, corresponds to concentration of attention. And we can utilize zero and negative of this parameter correspond to the spontaneous responce and the orienting responce respectively.
The purpose of this study is to causal and effect relationships between students attitudes toward mathematics and their related variables. I found some path diagrams of causal and effect relationships among students attitudes toward mathematics, students feeling levels of difficulty toward mathematics and students perceptions of mathematics teacher on three groups of students based on levels of mathematics achievement. The results of this study reveal that there are more significant cause and effect relationships on junior high school students than on senior high school students, and that there are more significant cause and effect relationship on high level class students than on low level class students. I think that "attitude → achievement" relation is stronger than "achievement → attitude" relation, and that teacher variables and students feeling levels of difficulty toward mathematics affect students attitudes toward mathematics strongly.