In order that pupils have a better general idea of internal organs of fish anatomy, we developed a jigsaw puzzle printed with a picture of a fish's internal organs as a teaching tool. Our experimental trial during two weeks was applied to sixth-grade pupils at a public elementary school. At the start of each of the six lessons, fifteen minutes were allocated as follows: the pupils in the Experimental Group put the pieces of the puzzle together, those of Control Group 1 repeatedly received a short test, and those of Control Group 2 took conventional lessons. The pre- and post-tests results from the trial, and the achievement test conducted one month later suggested that compared to Control Groups 1 and 2, the Experimental Group understood the contents of the anatomy lesson substantially better. Furthermore, the comments from the pupils in the Experimental Group suggest that putting the pieces together deepened their understanding of the roles of the internal organs. It could be inferred that, through a subconscious link to the sense perception of the pieces and by putting them together they understood better the function of a fish's internal organs.
In 2006, the Central Council for Education published a report that proposed the direction for which the school education in our country should develop. It suggested that the enhancement of ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) was required as a social mission for the school education. Furthermore, the Home Economics Curriculum was called upon to improve and to enhance the area concerning the "establishment of a lifestyle that considers the resources and the environment" in line with ESD principles. This paper on ESD in the Home Economics Curriculum begins its examination with this aim and its principles on this subject. This resulted in "a more scientific decision making process of problem solving to be used to examine the way in which we could lead life in relation to the self and the environment based upon the theories and principles clarified by the field of research in home economics". This was the basis for our curriculum. This paper, the topic of Home Economics Clothes Lifestyle, an elementary school course (2008 versions), was analyzed from this viewpoint. Results show a problem was found particularly with the topic "A Comfortable Way to Put on Clothes". Therefore, the experiment to which the theory and law were able to be acquired by a scientific method was found to be a part of the methodology of the clothes science curriculum. Furthermore, a new curriculum was developed. The principle of "A Warm and Cool Way to Put on Clothes" was shown. In addition, the characteristic and the method of wearing requested clothes were shown from the aspect of clothes science. Among these, neither study method nor knowledge was shown about the hue of the clothes in the study in the elementary school. Then, the experiment that examined the heat absorption ability of clothes when the hue was different was developed for classes in the elementary schools. In the experiment, simple teaching materials were used. The experiment used the following pieces of colored felt: black, white, gray, blue, green, yellow and red. Three places were chosen to measure the color hues in a sunny place, a shady place, and indoors. Measurements from two seasons - summer and winter - were taken as well. The heat absorption was different depending on the hue. The heat absorption for black and green felts were greater, and for white and yellow, less. On the other hand, in shady places and indoors, no difference was found between the colors. It was shown that the hue of clothes was a critical factor when wearing them in direct sunshine. As for the developed experiment, the principle was clean In this experiment, the difference of the heat absorption of the clothes color can be clarified.
The purpose of this study was to examine teaching units for writing opinion essays within Japanese language textbooks for high schools from the perspective of cognitive psychology. The author surveyed 16 textbooks which were published by 10 publishers from Showa 60 (1985) to 62 (1987), 21 textbooks which were published by 10 publishers from Heisei 6 (1994) to 9 (1997), and 22 textbooks which were published by 9 publishers from Heisei 19 (2007) to 22 (2010). The results showed 1) there were more explanations about planning than revision, 2) there were few teaching units which indicated that writing process was recursive, and 3) teaching units in Heisei 19-22 textbooks contained many devices which could lessen students' cognitive burden while writing. Moreover, it was demonstrated that teaching units reflected the National Curriculum Standards for High Schools.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hands-on experience on the metacognitive activity of upper secondary school students with regards to their belief about experimentation. Students in two public upper secondary school classes received instructions concerning "the relationship between chemical reactions and quantity" in Chemistry (I). One class received experimental instructions, while the other class received controlled instructions. Students in the class with experimental instructions designed and carried out experiments in groups to solve a problem using scientific knowledge. Students in the control class carried out experiments to deduce scientific knowledge. The main results were as follows: (1) Students' self-estimated scores for their "level of metacognition" and their "level of metacognition arising from interaction with peers or teachers" were higher in the experimental class than in the control class. (2) Students in the experimental class had more positive results than students in the control class with regards to their belief in the experiment of "strategic intention of hypothesis verification".
This paper reports on an empirical study implemented in 5 classes for fourth-year elementary students using the "Education Program for Thinking about Life and Death Regarding Oneself and One's Family" developed for second-year elementary school students. In this program a validation was carried out from the consideration of three points: 1) analysis of the responses written by students reflecting upon the lesson, 2) analysis of the results of the program of study by a survey conducted after the lesson, and 3) evaluation by the instructors regarding the incorporation of this program into the fourth grade curriculum. Looking back on the lesson, 125 out of 194 students had written about how precious "life and family were" and about being aware of "being alive at this moment." From the results, it was deemed possible to incorporate this topic into the fourth-year students' education program. Furthermore, according to the analysis of the results from the survey, there was a significant correlation between "the death of a family member" and "their own death", and that of the lesson. According to measurements of "self-esteem of the student" and "self-esteem of the family" before and after the lesson, the average value of self-esteem of the family increased marginally after the lesson. In addition to obtaining an overall positive evaluation of this education program from the five instructors, no difference in experience variation was observed, and we concluded that it was possible to incorporate this program on the topic of death into the fourth grade curriculum.
Since 2011, Japanese elementary schools have initiated English as a compulsory foreign language activity. Homeroom teachers play an important role in providing English education to pupils. However, teachers lack confidence not only in their teaching skills but also in their pronunciation of English. In an elementary English class, pupils listen to teacher's pronunciation as a model. This can affect the pupils' pronunciation. Therefore, universities should offer pronunciation instructions in pre-service teacher training courses for English and teach the fundamentals of phonetics to the trainee teachers in order for them to instruct pupils well. In this study, the author performed a pilot study that attempted to develop trainee teachers' pronunciation of English and enabled them to practice giving instructions as pronunciation teachers. In each of the six session training period, participants first received pronunciation instruction. They then reviewed the theory and practiced pronunciation in pairs. Finally, one teacher trainee checked his/her partner's pronunciation and provided some advice for improvement. As a result from the training, they significantly improved most of the target pronunciations and indicated that the pair exercise, in which one person played the role of teacher, was an effective means for understanding the fundamentals of pronunciation.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the relationship between the students' sense and their consciousness of classes and career decisions in a technical high school. Our previous research, we carried out a survey to analyze the teachers' points of view of grasping the students' sense. From these results, we found five factors: "deliberativeness", "exploration mind", "adaptability", "autonomy" and "originality" (Itsumi & Moriyama, 2011). Based on these five factors, we modified the question items and conducted a survey of 512 technical high school students. As a result, confirmative factor analysis supported our earlier findings above of the five factors in a modified scale. Using these items, we examined the relationship between the students' sense and their consciousness of career decisions. The results indicated that self-evaluation of sense in students, students who wish to specialize in their future career showed significantly higher scores in the five factors than other students. Again, the results indicated that self-evaluation of sense in students, students who with positive attitudes in technical subject classes showed significantly higher scores in the five factors than other students.
The object of this study is to clarify through a survey Japanese junior high school students' awareness about craft education. Our results, continuing from our previous research, showed that interest in craft education stagnated in the 3^<rd> Grade. 6^<th> Grade students had a favorable image of craft education but here also interest in craft education decreased by 8.5%. Both boys and girls in elementary schools saw craft education as a comparatively useful subject. Boys more than girls thought craft education was more relevant to their future. Furthermore, learning effect upon junior high school students were as high as elementary school students. However, their interest in craft in daily life decreased after their elementary school years. The interest and learning showed a correlation. Interest and usefulness also showed a correlation in both elementary and junior high schools. No correlation was seen between parents' overall actual craft activities outside of school and craft education at school.
In this research paper, I will show a new technique for an ICT activity, utilizing the ICT teaching program in nursery education at Iwakuni-East Kindergarten with the point of view of acquiring a "foundation for learning" in kindergarten and elementary schools. In other words, I think children create a variety and an active territory and supplement certain experiences by connecting their interactive learning from real world daily experience with learning from the artificial experience of ICT activity that early childhood educators contrive. The aim of this research is to connect interactively the artificial experience of an ICT learning material such as "Sound Mushroom" and internet search with the real world experience of breeding swallowtail butterfly larvae and outdoor play. This resulted in verifying that media information introduced through ICT activity at optimal times between real world experiences that an infant is interested in and concerned about, could be an excellent teaching tool for raising their noticing abilities. In this way I observed the children's informational activation for "learning independence" from infancy to childhood from these results.