I have already published four series of articles in this bullentin. Article (I), 'An Error Analysis of Japanese Students' Listening Comprehension and Dictation of English Radio and Television Weather Forecasts' focused on the receptive aspects of communication. In it I looked at various errors quite often displayed by Japanese students. Particular attention was given to common mistakes in listening comprehension of English radio and television weather forecasts. Especially, because broadcasting English is a phonetic language, a colloquial style is widely used, so I think it effective material to develop one's speaking and listening abilities. This article looks at various errors often displayed by Japanese students through the view point of English Phonetics. In addition, this paper will also speculate on some of the reasons for the problems encountered by Japanese students of English pronounciations.
The purpose of this article is to consider theoretically the procedures of writing test items which produce tests in social studies which are effective instruments of measuring students' academic achievement or of evaluating the outcome of classroom instruction on the students' side. The results demonstrate that there is a tendency for the basic plan of test questions to depend on the structure of the instructional content which item writers have had in mind. The forms of the items depend on the kinds of learning which they have had in mind. In that sense item writers' viewpoint of social studies as a school subject, of contents to be taught, and of students reflect the test questions in social studies.
When a researcher analyses a specific lesson, he usually has the intention of analysis in advance. In this case, he can, in principle, collect any kind of information necessary for the analysis. However, there sometimes arise cases in which he feels the necessity to analyse a particular lesson after it was over. The usual methods for analysing a lesson cannot be applied to these cases. Therefore, it is necessary to develop different kinds of methods for analysis which are applicable to the above cases. This study aims at developing a method for categorizing the teaching style of a teacher in a series of science lessons. In order to categorize teaching styles of three teachers in three 5th-grader science classes on the unit "seed germination", content analysis of the notes found in all the pupils' notebooks was attempted. The results indicate that the pattern of the frequency distribution of the notes classified into each of "eight kinds of teaching processes of science lessons", to be defined in this study, is an index of categorizing the teaching style in the series of science lessons concerned.
Language has been reinterpreted as social process (La Forge 1983: 1). All social practices can be seen as language. One of them is the pressing problem of culture shock experienced by foreign students and returnees to be solved at present in Japan. In general, culture shock proceeds through the four stages: honeymoon, embryonic, recovery and adaptation, which leads to mutual understanding of different cultures through intercultural communication.. In this sense, language is interpreted as social process. Thus, teaching culture is one crucial aspect of Japanese language teaching in Japan. The present experiment shows that overemphasis on more knowledge of intercultural differences doesn't necessarily lead to mutual understanding of different cultures in the true sense.
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of advance organizers on teaching the structure of flowers in regular classrooms of the junior high school. Subjects were the first grade students (12 - 13 years old) of the junior high school. They were divided into two groups based on scores on science and other exams; high score groups and low score ones. Twenty subjects were assigned to each group. Prior to learning the structure of flowers, the subjects under one half of high score groups and one half of low score groups were given advance organizers about evolution of flowers. One week later, subjects of each group received two types of tests, one retention test and the other transfer test. Results showed that subjects of high score groups performed better on retention test than those of low score groups, and that an interaction of advance organizers and score was significant on transfer test. Educational implications about advance organizers were discussed.