Self-evaluation in Life Environment Education ("Seikatsuka") at the elementary school lower class level focuses on non-independent evaluations, which requires teacher instruction and relies on the relationship between the teacher and the student in subjects of study. This non-independent evaluation is not effective in order for the students to be able to understand the self-evaluation environment or to modify the subjective study environment. Through the introduction of the "method of compilation" in portfolio assessment, understanding of student awareness of self-evaluation was developed. In this study, the following results were obtained: (1) the introduction of the "method of compilation" helps improve the study environment and promotes student self-awareness at the elementary school lower class level; (2) the "method of compilation" in "selection", "categorization", and especially the activity of "recollection", avoids ambiguous self-evaluation by students and promotes "independent self-evaluation"; (3) the "method of compilation", "arrangement", "comparison", "standardization", "autobiography", and regular "participation" from the teacher, is indispensable, in any absence of objective self-evaluation; (4) the function of "method of compilation" is appropriate for each stage of learning; (5) the experience of the "method of compilation" approach can bring out an effective awareness of the methods and the significance of self-evaluation and self-awareness, in any study environment.
This paper aims to clarify the effects of completing homemaking courses offered at high schools since 1994 on the eating habits of male college students. The research method was to compare measures of food intake between a survey in 1996 (object: male college students who had not completed a homemaking course at high school) and a survey in 2002 (object: male college students who had completed a homemaking source at high school). The completion of homemaking courses at high school did not result in an increase in the quality of food intake by the male college students in the 2002 survey as compared to the 1996 survey. The reason was believed to be the changes in the food environment surrounding the students. The changes had been so great in the six years that they negated the effects of studying homemaking. Markedly lower quality of food intake by those who lived at home were believed to be a consequence of the deterioration in the quality of home meals due to decreased opportunities to prepare meals at home.
The purpose of this study is to examine high school students' understanding of the Law of Segregation by introducing the concept of Incomplete Dominant Trait in the introduction of genetics in science education. This study revealed that by introducing Incomplete Dominant Trait, students attained a better understanding of the Law of Segregation. In addition, the majority of students took the F1 trait as the basis of the assumed gene. This study was conducted with a control group (38 high school 2nd graders) and an experimental group (24 high school 1st graders). In order to examine students' understanding, both groups were given a paper-pencil test which related to the Law of Segregation. This study concluded that learning about the Law of Segregation by introducing the concept of Incomplete Dominant Trait had a positive effect on students' understanding.
We investigated the relationship between the change of students' roles and field-independent and field-dependent cognitive styles of students with variations in the make-up of groups. First, we categorized the students as field-independent or field-dependent learners by observing their behaviour in small groups carrying out scientific experiments in science classes. Next, we organized students into new small groups for students with similar cognitive styles. We asked them to perform scientific experiments in science classes. We recorded their behaviour when carrying out the experiments. We analyzed students' roles, and cognitive styles (field-independent or field-dependent), and compared their behaviour in the new groups with their behaviour in the old groups. It was found that field-independent type learners were more likely to change their role than field-dependent type learners. Therefore the following could be determined: when organizing small groups for scientific experiments in science classes, the roles of students with field-dependent cognitive style do not tend to change.
The purpose of this study was to clarify how the use of music as developmental support has been introduced, and the role of this approach in music classes at schools for the intellectually handicapped. Through an analysis of instructional objectives provided in teacher manuals for textbooks used in the class, two essential elements could be identified: 1) the use of music as developmental support has been positively introduced to promote the growth of the intellectually handicapped since compulsory education for them in schools started, and this approach is regarded as important now; 2) this approach has mainly been introduced for physical expression and instrumental music, and has led to a development in music education for the intellectually handicapped.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the direction of "health education" in school education. To lay the foundation for this research, an investigation and analysis of college women's weight-consciousness and slimming behavior was carried out. From the results, it can be seen that there is a strong "desire to slim down" and at the same time, there is a mistaken perception that one "is fat" even though one's figure is of standard proportions. It is believed that because "the age when one begins to get anxious about one's figure" corresponds to a certain extent with the occurrence of the development of one's "secondary sexual characteristics"; it is possible that one might actually mistake a change in one's figure, which is really due to development of sexual characteristics, for the fact that one has "grown fat", and so in the end one desires to "be slim". It is important to further one's understanding of "sexual characteristics" beyond the framework of the curriculum through school education during this period, so that the ability to appropriately handle bodily changes can be developed. One concern is that, of the people adopting slimming behavior, there are many high school students, and they diet by either not eating or through skipping meals, thus adversely affecting their health. There is a need to help people, using expertise from a wide variety of fields, to lead a healthy lifestyle with a good balance of nutrition, exercise, rest and sleep.