The purpose of this paper is to study how to plan classes in order to realize serious learning based upon "life" for the short and long term in high school Japanese classes. It is desirable for teachers to plan classes with an accurate understanding of the actual level of learning and with the knowledge that learners have their "life" and own path of "life". In the current research on learners, however, the scope of learning is limited to the class whilst the "life" background and own path of "life" of each student are intentionally ignored. Therefore, in this study, I would like to address the interaction between "life" background and learning of Japanese. From this study, suggestions on how to plan high school Japanese classes will be obtained.
In order to examine the possibility of the introduction of life skill education to nutritional education, in this study we investigated the present situation of life skill education for children with light mental retardation with the aim of finding solutions to the problems involved in the situation. As a result, it was found that the necessity of nutritional education was not recognized, and its methodology was not established, for children with mild mental retardation. Now that integrated education has been promoted, it is an urgent problem to find a way to guarantee children basic education in how to arrange a well-balanced diet.
In this study, the effects of two teaching methods were compared. One of the teaching methods was termed theme-centered teaching. In theme-centered teaching, a thematic subject was introduced in a daily life context. The other method was conventional teaching, in which concepts to be learned were explained by a teacher. The effects of these methods on students' memory retention and comprehension were investigated through experimental intervention. In the experimental intervention, eighth grade students participated in a social science class in which one of the two teaching methods was employed. The results indicated that there was no difference between students participating in either class, when tested immediately after the intervention. However, when tested three months later, students participating in theme-centered classes performed significantly better in explaining the conceptual relationships. From these results, it was suggested that theme-centered teaching was more effective in maintaining students' understanding.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relevance of design factors taken into consideration during the design process. Twenty undergraduates who had acquired fundamental knowledge about design and manufacturing participated in a trial which required them to design a multi-purpose unit. We extracted the design factors: 'size'; 'shapes'; 'function'; 'materials'; 'processing method'; and 'frame and strength' from students' questionnaire responses, and the order and frequency with which they appeared were examined. Based on this a design sequence was inferred. At the initial stage the following sequence was suggested: decisions on the materials from which components are made into articles; decisions on the shape and size of articles with due consideration of the articles' functions. In the process of optimization when improving and reconstructing articles, two sequences were suggested. One involved a forward direction based on design factors observed at the initial stage: imagination of how the article sill be used; examination of how the article will be manufactured; and examination of the structure and strength of the article. The second sequence involved a backward direction with a re-examination of the articles shown in the preceding process.
In recent English language teaching in Japan, which tends to emphasize practicality, there have been claims that literature is of no use. In accordance with this, textbooks seem to have few literary texts. There is, however, no empirical evidence justifying this situation. In order to consider whether this current situation is appropriate or not, models of literary English competence and general English competence, and the differences between them, need to be described. As a first step towards this, in the present study, multiple regression analyses were conducted by regarding the scores of a literary English competence test and the Center Test as the dependent variables, and those of five tests (English vocabulary level test, English productive vocabulary test, English grammar test, contemporary Japa- nese test, and questionnaire for motivation to study English) as independent variables. The results showed a significant difference between the R^2 values. Discussions based on R^2s and correlation coef- ficients between variables are presented as one piece of empirical evidence for the consideration of the utility of literature in ELT from now on.
A scale to measure understanding of life environment studies was created, and factor analysis was carried out with 145 college students before and after life environment studies classes. Based on the factor construction derived from Takagaki (2003), life environment studies classes were designed and carried out. Analysis of the results demonstrated the following points '・ "Development beyond domains" was extracted as a first factor in the understanding of life environment studies by the students after classes. This factor comprised four subscales, including "Connections with other curricula". The second factor extracted was "Significance of curriculum", and this factor comprised three subscales, including "Newly-established details". The third factor extracted was "Enrichment of new scholastic ability", and this factor comprised five subscales, including "Ability to study by oneself. The fourth factor extracted was "Guidance tasks", and this factor comprised five subscales, including "Difficulty of evaluation". These results showed that teaching strategies which specialize in 'learning style' and learning acquired from direct experience' diversify students' understanding of the subject.
A study of eating in the elementary school setting observed the relationship between awareness of food choices and actual food choices made by a grade five elementary school class. This class was used as a foundation to develop reasoning for food choices based on the class materials. Ten commercially-made snack items were consciously chosen in order respectively by: (1) taste; (2) price; (3) quantity. Conscientious food choices for fresh foods were made based on surface appearance and quantity. Processed foods were chosen based on the expiration date and price. The highest level of recognition for food terms was the word "import foods". Most students that had this knowledge gained it from family dinner time conversations or by watching the news on TV and reading newspapers. As a result of an analysis of information such as textbooks and questionnaires, class plans could be developed. It was found to be effective to relate them to social studies, while at the same time, encouraging family interaction. It appears to be necessary to conduct classes to develop an understanding of "safe food choices" at the elementary school age level because of all the lifestyle changes that have developed in the food market environment.