The purpose of this study is to elucidate the significance of playing with, or in nature. Nature playing develops the basis for understanding nature and the sensitivity towards it. These serve as the foundation for environmental education, where children come to understand the importance of the relation between human and nature, and children's sensitivity to the environment will be raised. Nature playing helps develop the physical strength and initiatives of children, and equip them with integrated wisdom based on first-hand experience, and thus helps them in leading their own lives.
To arouse the students' motivation in a lesson is the central subject of school in technical education. And for this, it is important for a teacher to understand the students' degree of learning motivation. The objective of this study is to make a scale of measurement for student motivation in learning for lessons in one unit and to investigate the transition of learning motivation in the subject of technical education. The results were as follows; 1. In the analysis of students' motivation in a lesson, four factors were drawn by factor analysis, i.e.: "eager to make", and "need to help", "challenge", and "cognitive conflict". 2. Using the questionnaire made, transition of all class learning motivation were determined visually to deepen students' understanding. 3. Form deviation of the factors "need of help" and "challenge" made a clearer understanding of the character of students' learning motivation. And, it also made possible the classification of the character of students' personal learning motivation.
In school education, it is important to consider the problem on how to activate the creativity to think among students. Up to this period, many persons have proposed many models on the process of creative thinking. These models are analyzed from the viewpoint of time flow. The models may not mean about how knowledge and information are changed and composed. This paper proposes a model of the process of creating creativity and its application. The model shows the change and the composition of the knowledge and the information in the process of the creation. Furthermore, I am proposing the making of the basic model of activating creative thinking. The making of the basic method by the use of concept mapping in mathematics education has many advantages. As a result of the experiments, the following aspects were clarified: 1. Each student discovers many creative problems of greater worth. 2. Each student has the higher power of communicating information. 3. Each student has a strong mind for inquiry.
In this research we analyzed the skin resistance response, which represents one of the emotions, observable in the teaching-learning process, by using the power spectrum method. We hoped to find some new characteristics of the teaching-learning process by analyzing the slope of the plotted line of power spectrum against frequency. As a result of the analysis, we obtained the following: 1. We found that the relationship between power spectrum and frequency, in the teaching-learning process, was in the range of 1/f^<1.1> -1/f^<2.1> when using the power analysis method of the skin resistance response. 2. When comparing skin response during care-free-way class times to intensive-way class times, the slope was found to be close to 1 in the first case and close to 2 in the second one. 3. The slope corresponding to the total data for teachers who have a large experience in teaching was found to be high, and the slope corresponding to teachers who have a poor experience in teaching was low. 4. When students watch a video presentation as part of the class, the slope corresponding to the "watching" time skin response data is high, regardless of the teacher being experienced or inexperienced. 5. In the data generated during communication between students and teacher, i.e., while interaction occurs, the slope was higher when the teacher is experienced as compared to the in unexperienced one. 6. In the case of explanation and interpretation, i.e. one way communication, the slope corresponding to this particular data was not different between experienced and inexperienced teachers.
For an ordinary person, mathematics looks like a set of truth that has nothing to do with experiences of human beings and is constructed to have been formed on an absolute or flawless basis. In this research, I argue such kind of conception historically and the relevancy of quasi empiricism for mathematics education and propose methods of proof teaching based on it. My proposals are following: 1. Placing a proof activity in a dynamic developmental process of mathematics. [figure] 2. Considering a proof activity as a social activity. 3. Stressing discovery, explanatory, and communicative functions of proof.
As regards to the three kinds of processing methods, "Sawing", "Nailing", and "Planing" in the field of Woodworking for processing practice in Technology Education, the researcher clarified the situation about students' acquisition of skills by means of measuring changes of their skills. Experiments were carried out twice on freshmen students who have not learned any Woodworking lesson yet. Students were divided into three groups, that is, "Teacher-instructing Group", "Self-training Group", and "Uninstructed Group". At the next stage, after the students experienced wood processing in the field of Woodworking, the researcher performed experiments by allowing them to process wood material according to the three processing methods as mentioned above. Also, the researcher investigated about the situation on their acquisition of skills as a whole. From the experiments as mentioned above, it has been made clear that "skills can be improved and developed by realizing the function and mechanism of each tool, grasping how to use it and practicing its use repeatedly". It has also turned out that "correct recognition of skills" and "repetition of skills" are necessary for acquisition of skills.
In any sports event, both opponents follow and compete under the same rules. Who wins is decided upon by the comparison of the score between the competitors and it seems that the focus being emphasized is on the competition and winning the game in sports events at school. In this paper, we focused on determining the meaning and the roles of the "greetings" being undertaken fore and after the sports event. We conducted this research on high school students in Hiroshima Prefecture and analyzed how "greeting" takes a role in sports event. We were not able to fined papers related to this research, besides a military science paper that analyzed the "greeting" what are usually done by educationally manners. We hope that his study will become the foundation of analyzing the roles and meaning of "greeting".
A proposal was made on contents composition of synthetic practice to put together "family finance" and "house work" in the area of home life in a junior high school. This study investigated the mutual relationship between contents composition and students' consciousness, and the influence of contents composition on lessons through synthetic teaching planning and practice. The results were as follows: 1. In the same teaching case, there were differences on account of the kind of consciousness and teaching methods. In order to improve consciousness, it was important to inform the real state of the case, for example the utilization and a reasonable age to study. 2. Each teaching method had relations to a specific consciousness, namely there were tendencies that surveys and lectures improved consciousness, and actual training was helpful to improve motivation. It was effective to use various teaching methods and synthetic practice in order to bring up synthetic consciousness of students. 3. On synthetic teaching planning and practice, teaching cases show more influence than teaching methods. Selection and development of cases, which students can grasp life from different angles that they could be interested in, were important.