This paper aims at studying linguistic expression in its basic form and in its role as the basis of the composition guidance theory. Therefore the author looked at the same linguistic functions in communication and dealt with them organically and structurally. By quoting from Ferdinand de Saussure ' s linguistics the author emphasized that linguistic expression is not only for conveyance of meaning but also for systematizing the reality in the value system of the recipient. By phenomenology the author looked at expression in a way which had not been discussed in Ferdinand de Sassure's linguistics. The author also advocated that more importance should be attached to creative imagination with regard to linguistic expression. These points of view have not been considered greatly in previous studies on composition guidance, so the author has put them forward as a new basic theory.
Immediate experiences in science learning have two functions, that is, to discover problems and to integrate knowledge with skills. Therefore it is necessary that the latter function should be emphasized as much as the former to attain the object of science education that learners' creative abilities are to be developed. To know how the latter function had been utilized in science learning, I investigated the management of flower beds at elementary schools in Nagasaki City and the suburbs in 1980 and 1989. The result shows that the cultivation of plants began to decline and that flower beds were not utilized enough in science learning. I propose the following three programs for the improvement of this situation. (1) The units that aim at pupils' proficiency in making or growing should be newly included in elementary school science. (2) The units should be continued all through the school year and in cooperation with as many other subjects as possible. (3) It is necessary that the faculties of education should have the curriculum in which students are trained to get the ability to grow plants.
In the Course of study revised in the first year of Heisei, formative plays of Arts are Handicrafts was expanded to the fourth year in elementary school. Formative plays is a field introduced by the last revision of curriculum, in order to change a traditional view of art education, Which makes much of work. It familiarizes pupils with artistic materials and develop their free conception through plays. It makes more of formative activities themselves rather than resultant work. We tend to take the so-called constructive formative method in these formative activities. Then we will state relationship between formative plays and construction, and make its position clear in this article. To put it simply, the formative method of construction is non-presentative method. In formative plays pupils give formative expression in the non-presentative method, suiting themselves to artistic materials and rules or purposes of plays. These activities develop artistic sense, images and planning, and organically relate to fields of picture, sculpture, crafts and design. Besides, there is a common respect between basic art and design, which is study of the basic content of formativeness, and formative plays in that they have non-style. Therefore learning materials of formative plays or basic art and design are freely open as an expressive form. And because of their universal and general content, they have mutual relationship, conflicting with the special content of other fields.
The problem-solving activity is various in contents and character according to subject. This study aims at investigating what is the problem-solving activity in music learning. For this aim, it is analyzed into (1)the problem rising, (2)the problem investigation, and (3)the problem solving. The results indicate the following types; type1 The students prove and discover the facts based on their question. type2 The students improve music expression and create music works based on their question. type3 The students prove and discover the facts based on a subject presented by teacher. type4 The students improve music expression and create music works based on a subject presented by teacher. The living examples are analyzed here according to these types. As the result of these works, the remarkable thing in music study is not the problem-solving that students seek the goal, but the problem-solving that students decide on the goal.
Food area in the curriculum of home economics education is divided into three major parts, nutrients, foodstuffs and cooking methods. Education on the foods is going into details, but it leaves some rooms for consideration on the biological qualifications of human being(Homo sapiens). The qualifications Which is relating to the food habit of human being, such as dental morphology, age and racial differences of digestive enzymes, have very important meanings to ensure the health of human being, but it put emphasis only the cultural meanings of food, and the biological qualifications of human being are buried in oblivion. I discussed on the comparisons of food habits among mammals, natural environmental factors which reflect to the food-life of the area, and transition of the food-life of Japanese people. Low-risk from cancer and heart disease among Seventh-Day Adventists and other vegetarians those are revealed from 1960's, are considered that their food-life are very closed to the food habit of human being, and it should be concerned to these facts and biological qualifications of man to the food education in the curriculum of home economics education from the view point of the health.
This paper describes a fact-finding study of ESL-education (English as a Second Language) in USA and Canada, and gives consideration to JSL-education (Japanese as a Second Language ) in Japan. Recently, JSL-education for foreign-born children staying with parents in Japan is being regarded as so important education! , because of numbers of such children increasing rapidly. However, JSL-education will face to some difficult problems such as educational objectives, curriculums, methods, and so on, because teachers in Japan have no experience of teaching foreign children, and they have to teach with consideration into cultural differences. Under educational background above mentioned, the authors made an on-the-spot investigation of ESL-education in USA and Canada for four weeks. As results, it was found that informations on educational philosophy, objectives, curriculums, methods of ESL-education give so useful advice to JSL- education. And, from results, the authors recommends how to perform JSL- education in order to make it productive.
As Business English is a prime medium of International Trade and Transactions, it requires not only grammatical correctness but also careful concern about stylistics so that "the effects of expressions" may be raised in a sense of commercial psychology. In this report, taking into consideration such a distinctive characteristic of Business English, the present writer examines some stylistic rules, which in- structures should teach to learners, in the following three (3) aspects: (1) length of a sentence (2) sentence form (3) sentence structure Concerning (1),the styles which produce "Readability" are considered and related to the subject of "choice of vocabulary". Concerning (2),the styles which produce "You Attitude" are considered on each of the sentence types classified by forms. Concerning (3),four (4) standard methods of paragraphing are presented, based on the sentence types classified by structures. On each of these methods, its merits and demerits are pointed out in detail^ Thorough the examinations above mentioned, I show systematically a part of "teaching of stylistics "which instructors should try to put into practice.