About the study of the teaching materials including techniques in home economics education, especially how to answer the individual differences is always a large subject of teaching. In clothing constitution, it is all the more noticeable. So to make sure of understanding and settlement of the teaching materials including techniques, and moreover to draw out new concern and interest by computer and to raise the effect of education, I developed multimedia teaching materials by HyperText. These materials make possible to take out the necessary part according to technical ability of the students, and they are considered as the materials which can promote the ability of self teaching by students themselves, and which can answer to the individual differences. Development of multimedia materials by HyperCard has high possibility of application to other areas in home economics education.
Observations of an infant's human figure drawings revealed that he used forms of expressions which combined a head with arms, legs, and a trunk in a variety of ways. Expressions for human figures used by infants have been described as 'Kopffusser,' 'tetard,' 'bonhomme tetard,' 'figure without a body,' and 'head-feet representation.' In this study those human figure expressions are described as 'head-feet expression forms.' There seem to be many problems unsolved about the structure and the nature of the expression forms. It is, therefore, necessary to criticize the previous studies by investigating historically what they described as head-feet expression forms and how they explained those forms theoretically. This paper will focus on the following studies: A. Cambier (1976), M. Sonoda (1976), J. Goodnow (1977), and M. Nagasaka (1977).
In this paper, We paid attention to relations between expressions and figures which are fundamental and basic assistance to learn technical training, and those were analyzed from the viewpoint of statistics on the basis of text-data base in the field of woodwork. To be more concrete, we investigated a number of sentences and figures, relations between them, and categories of learning marks. At the same time, we checked up that to discuss what the textbooks should be. The results were summed up as following three points. 1) The expressions of textbooks were nearly ideal, read from the length of sentences. 2) There is a correlation between the amount of characters and the contains of Chinese characters. 3) It was proved that if the amount of characters decreases, the contains of Chinese characters and the rate of figures increase. To prove the reasons for the textbook changes, we think it is the best to inquire of the textbook writers about the reason why the expressions of that were changed. However, because of various courses, it is very difficult to explain the reasons.
The purpose of this study is to define the cognitive ability and the methods of forming the cognitive ability in physical education. Especially I clarified the following three matters. (1)An own way of the cognition in physical education (2)A relation between the forming skill and the forming cognitive ability (3)A way of thinking for teaching contents and methods for forming cognitive ability. The results are as follows. (1)The own way of cognition in physical education is the cognition by movement. And the feature is that the body as cognitive subject is also cognitive object. (2)The relation between the forming skill and the forming cognitive ability is dialectic or co-relation. (3)In order to form cognitive ability to students, teachers have to prepare the teaching materials that can make students analyze/synthesize their body movements. It does not mean to keep on developing skills. And teachers have to make a teaching contents structs better in accordance with student's cognitive growth.
A questionnaire was carried out for university students with an attempt to clarify the effect of home economics education on consciousness of dietary life. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Eight factors was extracted by a factor analysis of consciousness of dietary life. The total contribution ratio of eight factors was 55.5%. 2. A correlation was observed between knowledge of food and nutrition and the factors of "interest in health" and "inclination to handmade". 3. The interest in health and inclination to handmade were higher with score of knowledge of food and nutrition.
The present study was designed to elucidate whether or not the effectiveness of three problem-solving styles (problem-formation style, problem-selection style, guided-discovery style) differ with children's attitudes toward physical education teaching and motor skills among 5th and 6th graders in elementary school. Three teaching materials (running-broad jump, hurdle running and unastride vault on a vaulting horse) were chosen for their use of 'closed skills'. According to the diagnostic results based on the attitude scores, eight cases rated 'successful class' were chosen as the subjects. Then, the attitudes were measured before and after each unit of instruction, respectively, using Kobayashi Physical Education Inventory. The motor skills were evaluated by the change during, before and after unit instruction with the relationships between 'run- up speed' and 'jumping distance' in the cases of running-broad jump and between 'time of 50m hurdle running' and '50m flat time' in the cases of hurdle running, respectively. And the exercise of the vault horse was evaluated by the ratio of successful trial which is defined by jumping over 80cm high. The effects of the above three problem-solving styles on the children's attitudes and motor skills were investigated and the effects were found to help develop attitudes and motor skills in the order of problem-formation style followed by guided-discovery and problem-selection. These results might be explained as follows; exercise teaching materials are based on the thought that they should be organized by children and not by teachers who pick them up from the cultural realm, in the problem-formation learning. It was considered that such thought might be a methodological principle of problem-solution leaning which brings about voluntary and independent learning. In addition, it was suggested that for the exercise of 'closed skills', in which the order of motor-learning phases is very important, there are not a few difficulties in the use of method by problem-selection style.
Affective evaluation using symbolic distance effect (SDE) in science classes was investigated. In the study, subjects were elementary school student. In the first experiment, they were presented with pairs of animal pictures. They were instructed to choose the member which is preference. The reaction time to choose the preference member varies inversely with steps between their preference order. In the second experiment, subjects' reaction times were measured at twice; before the dissection experiment and after it. Change of students' preference expressed in change of preference member and change of reaction time.