In this paper, the author analyzed the situation of the connection of subject matters in chemical education with those in homemaking education at secondary schools, and discussed the policy for the realization of the good relation between chemical education and homemaking education. It has been considered that chemical education stands on the basis of chemistry itself, and that homemaking education aims at the heightening of the level of techniques in home and the scientific understanding of everyday life. Scientific knowledge, especially chemistry, is necessary for the scientific understanding of everyday life, and this must be given through chemical education. Colloidal state is generally seen around us as some foods, detergents, fog, cosmetics, and so on. However, some of these materials appear as examples of colloidal state, and colloidal state is instructed with ferric hydroxide sol prepared by the hydrolysis of ferric chloride, in chemistry textbooks in Japan. This fact shows that the contribution of chemical education to homemaking education is very little. From the discussion mentioned above, the author came to the following conclusion. It is necessary to introduce chemical phenomena, which are seen in everyday life, as the teaching materials in chemical education at secondary schools. When these steps are taken, the relation between chemical education and homemaking education will be built.
The study was conducted to analyze the taxonomic relation obtained by two scales FA and MSD, which were developed in Japan for evaluating objectives in the affective domain of school mathematics. The subjects were 201 fifth through ninth-grade students, attending the Attached Elementary or Junior High School of the Faculty of Education, Akita University. Because that FA was constructed with three items belonging to each category 1.0, ..., 4.0, described by Krathwohl et al, a scale for each category could be constructed. MSD was a scale measuring attitudes toward school mathematics. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between scales for four categories and MSD scale were, 1.0: 0.4606, 2.0: 0.7414, 3.0: 0.7606 and 4.0: 0.7074. We further scrutinized the above mentioned relations under the modified correlation for curtailment, and the comparison of MSD scale to the scale for Category 3.0. Then we empirically suggested that categories and attitudes should be ranged on the Taxonomy continuum in the relation described by Krathwohl et al..
In the field of the teaching of English as a foreign language there are a great many complicated factors which have made it difficult to establish a concrete basis for effective instruction. After a long history of more than one hundred years of the teaching of English in Japan we have still left various problems unsettled and our methods unimproved. But above all, the attempt to find the ways how to attract students to our English language classes and to maintain their interest is the most difficult problems that most of English teachers have been facing. Several factors have been considered and identified as important in the learning of a foreign language. It may be said that teaching and learning interact in the situation in which students, teachers, teaching materials and methods exist. We can see quite a number of variables involved in these factors as they appear, and which would influence the success of learning a foreign language. It would be no easy task to identify which factor is the most influential and significant for the success of foreign language learning. But in this paper, focusing on the teaching phenomena, especially of the interaction of the teacher and students in teaching-learning situations, I did the survey through questionnaires based on so called "PM Theory." The purpose of this survey is to find out the general tendency what kind of English teacher's attitudes and behavior are required by his students. Result and discussion: (1) Junior high school students: Most of those who like English language study answered that their English teachers should admonish students against being not serious. But most of those who don't like English study answered that their English teachers should not severely admonish students against being not serious. (2) Senior high school students: Those who want to enter university strongly required "performance function" of their English teachers, much more than those who want to get a job after their graduation. On the contrary, the latter type of students strongly required "maintenance function" of their English teachers. (3) Preparatory students: Most of them very strongly required "performance function" of their English teachers. Whether they like English or not, they study English in order to pass the entrance examination so that they are supposed to require a severe type of English teacher. (4) University students: None of them wants to take any English examinations. After entering university, students don't require "performance function" of their English teachers. Most of them strongly required" maintenance function" of their English teachers.
This paper is a preparation for developing an effectively new type of the practical "Gesamtunterricht", so called Integrated-subject curriculum. In advance of our proposal a wide variety of the types in Japan was first evaluated and classified. The pedagogical and the methodological classification on "Gesamtunterricht" studies had been studied by Prof. Rentaro Ohno. The authors used the modified Ohno's method in order to classify both the past and present studies. The following is the five types of the modified method. (1) Subject instruction The contents of subjects, discipline, are given systematically to children by a teacher. (2) Subject instruction using multi-approach methods This is the type giving children the contents of subjects, discipline, through their living experiences. (3) Subject instruction connected with integrated-subject instruction This is the type giving children discipline systematically in a subject course and through their living experiences in an integrated-subject one. (4) Integrated-subject instruction Mentality and the development of children's personalities become a core in curriculum, and knowledge-understanding and skills play a secondary role in learning. (5) Fused-subject instruction as an unified discipline All things of children's living experience are learning items. Children study a problem- solving method through the process of inquiry from their everyday life by supporting teacher's guidances and advices. Many "Gesamtunterricht" curriculum types in elementary schools would be classified into the above five ones according to the degree of integration in their curricula, and each type of them would be in detail. As a result of the classifying study on "Gesamtunterricht", the authors could show various "Gesamtunterrict" curricula in some simple diagrams. And some suggestions to develop a new type "Gesamtunterricht" curriculum could be gained. Additionally, the new type of the "Gesamtunterricht" curriculum will be published as part 2 paper in the near future.
Historically, starting with an Aristotelian view where heaven had been clearly distinguished from earth, a human outlook on nature reached a Newtonian one which unified both of them through the Kepler's law for planets and the Galilei's law for falling bodies. How do the modern people recognize nature? In order to investigate the steps of the recognition of nature, a question concerned with universal gravitation was asked every year to about two hundred sophomores during the past four years. It was found from an analysis of answers to the question that the recognition of nature was classified into ten types, and the following six steps were obtained by arranging these types: (1) story recognition (2) qualitative recognition (3) quantitative recognition (4) static recognition (5) dynamic re- cognition (6) unified recognition.