The problem of the study was to determine if the completion of a methods course of school mathematics affected the attitude toward school mathematics of prospective elementary school teachers. During about ten months of the treatment of the course, their attitude seemed not to be modified or changed into more favorable attitudes. Then the result was scrutinized further and other data were analyzed. In spite of this, there was no evidence that the result obtained was neglected. It was estimated that the improvement of the teaching of the course was needed in modifying or changing attitude of prospective elementary school teachers during the treatment of the course.
This is a basic research study to make clear the cognitive process in child's learning activities. The objective of the experiment is to make clear the difference of psycho-physiological activities between recognizing identity and difference. The study was undertaken to measure electroencephalogram and plethysmogram in 7 undergraduate students, in place of children, as induced by recognizing them. Power spectrum of θ-wave, α_1-wave, and α_2-wave in electroencephalogram, and pulse wave amplitude and period of plethysmogram were analyzed as indexes by using R-mode factor analysis and R-mode cluster analysis. Three kinds of simple pictures were used for the objective. The experiment was undertaken using four stages which were of rest time (REL), perception of blue right stimula (B.S.), recognizing identity (IDE.), and recognizing difference (DIF.). The results are summarized as follows; (1) The psycho-physiological activities induced by each stage of REL., B.S., IDE., and DIF. are different from each other, but there are similarities between the activities induced by the former two stages, and also, between the latter two stages. (2) Though the activities induced by recognizing identity and difference have the similarity, it is considered that the recognition of identity induces more complex psycho- physiological activities than the recognition of difference.
This paper is mainly concerned with the survey on uses of Adjectives expressing degree and quantity of things in science textbooks for Japanese junior high school students. Degree and quantity of things are expressed dominantly by adjectives like ookii-chiisai (big-small or large-little) in Japanese. In some cases, they are expressed just by ookii- chiisai, or by other adjectives such as takai-hikui (High-low) or tsuyoi-yowai (strong-weak), or the like. It seems that there are no regular rules for their uses, and that little attention is paid to these terms by authors of textbooks. It will be proposed that the uses of these terms must be re-examined with a special reference to scientific terms.
At a point of contact with the educational intent, children's learning activities have deep relationships to teaching materials. Therefore, it must be said to be a particularly important problem in teaching materials and methods, whether the educational contents of teaching materials can function effectively or not. This paper is intended to find a clue to the solution of this problem by grasping each stage of children's emotional processes caused by a self-made teaching material- "Screen Operetta". By means of "Screen Operetta", a teaching material composed for children's musical appreciation, we attempt to grasp positively each stage of children's emotional processes in these appreciating activities, and to discuss the effectiveness of this teaching material as well.
Some of the criticism on usual cooking practice were:1) students did not commit the practice actively; 2) they could not participate in the whole process of cooking practice but only a part of it; and 3) they usually cooked alone in their houses. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chain learning method which was supposed to avoid the criticisms on usual cooking practice. Characteristics of chain learning method used in this study were as follows: one of the students cooked in front of the others; others observed the way he cooked and helped him whenever necessary; thus, all the students could observe the whole process of cooking. The task was 'Rice and Miso-soup' from the textbook for 6th grade. Two groups, experimental and control, were given equal treatment except for learning method. Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed 1) stable acquisition and understanding of the knowledge on cooking. 2) Control group was better than experimental group in inspector's evaluating.