The purpose of this study was to examine motivation in students' task selection during integrated studies classes through a case study. Ryan & Deci state that there are four stages of extrinsic motivation in the learning process. Based on their theory, we analyzed self-determination, which is said to have an important role in motivation in class. Our assumption is that the essential element in student-centered learning is self-determination, in other words, allowing the children the freedom to decide the subject matter themselves. We also ensured the provision of enough time for them to decide their own subjects. In this research we identified the four stages of extrinsic motivation as stated above. We found that self-determination cannot exist without an interest in the subject matter and an awareness of the problems to be solved. Collaboration among friends who study together in the class seems to be indispensable for making the best use of self-determination. Meanwhile, we confirmed that self-determination was obstructed by equating the goal with the method of learning, improperly eliminating impatience and anxiety, or being too dependent on the ideas of fellow students.
When L2 learners acquire English, it is important for them to be able to recognize and process an individual word as quickly as possible. However, many L2 learners find it difficult to read and spell English words automatically. It can be inferred that the difficulty of reading and spelling English words may be due to the inherent nature of the English writing system. The present study aims at investigating two research questions. The first research question is concerned with what factors contribute to the development of L2 reading (decoding) and spelling skills, and also the relation between them. The issue of how these lower-order skills are related to reading comprehension ability is explored by focusing on the distinct type of L2 learners who are good at reading comprehension but poor at spelling (Good Readers Poor Spellers = R+S-). The second research question deals with effective teaching techniques to develop "Good Readers Good Spellers = R+S+." The method called SPS is considered to be an effective technique for beginners to develop their knowledge of the spelling- sound rules of English.
The Bunkacho (The Agency for Cultural Affairs) publicly announced the new syllabus for educating Japanese language teachers on the base of its new philosophy and directions in March 2000. The old syllabus is characterized by an overemphasis on language whereas the new one has the feature of balancing pedagogies, linguistics and culture. The increase in breadth of the new syllabus has introduced a need in universities for teachers of Japanese teacher training courses with additional specialties. This article characterizes each university according to its ability to administer the new syllabus. A questionnaire was sent to all 89 universities that offer Japanese teacher training courses. Based upon the responses, universities were classified into four groups: The first group places an emphasis on teaching Japanese language and culture. The second group satisfies almost all requirements of the new syllabus. The third group satisfies the requirements of the old syllabus. The fourth group satisfies only a few requirements of the new syllabus. The conclusion is to suggest an increase in inter-university collaboration in order to meet the requirements of the new syllabus. This inter-university collaboration is described in further detail, including the use of Video On Demand for this purpose.
The purpose of this study is to investigate methods of communication used by English teachers in their English classes by surveying questionnaires given both to teachers who teach English in classes for the hearing- impaired (HI) and to HI people who were taught English in their junior high school days. From the questionnaires three items are extracted for this study: (1) teachers' perceptions of HI students; (2) methods they use in communicating with HI students; (3) methods used when the HI people were taught English. The results of the survey indicate that most of the English teachers who teach English have more or less their own methods of communicating, but they did not master their methods in English classes at university, but from teacher training programs after they came to schools for the deaf or to HI classes in junior high schools. Considering this fact, students who will become English teachers should be required to learn not only methods of communicating with HI students, but should also gain from the university curriculum an understanding of hearing impairment as well as other impediments. This would enable them to teach English - which is a subject in which listening and speaking skills are particularly important - to HI students in a more effective and enjoyable manner.
Logical thinking has a very important role in improving children's problem-solving abilities which are expected to be extended in the "Period for Integrated Study". However, "how to think" in comparison with "how to study" has not been carefully analyzed and the methodology for improving it has not been developed adequately. This study aims to provide individual PC training programmes which enable children to use Piajet's interpretative schemata. The CASE project which is in progress in the U.K. was referred to for developing programmes. Two schemata, "classification" and "control variables" were chosen, and for each schema a PC programme was developed. The programmes were verified by testing them on 3rd and 4th year elementary school students ("classification" for the 3rd year students; "control variables" for the 4th year students).
This paper is aimed at critically examining "the Standards of a Fine-arts Course" developed by the Chinese Educational Department in 2001. First, "the Standards of a Fine-arts Course" and "Guidelines for Teaching" in China and Japan are compared. Second, the descriptions of both the Chinese and Japanese guidelines are compared. It is concluded that Japanese education emphasizes "education through art" more than Chinese education. As a result of comparing and examining the revised plans of both countries in terms of "expression" and "appreciation" domains, it became clear that there are differences with regard to "playing through art", "appreciation", and "integrated studies." In China, there is less concrete interpretation as regards the overall target, and it is hard to understand the purpose of fine-arts education correctly and deeply. It might cause the problem that it is difficult for teachers to utilize and realize the standards.
In this study, the structure of tactics in various ball games was analyzed in order to develop a curriculum for teaching the joy of strategically winning ball games. The authors reviewed theories of tactics in ball games, and categorized the key concepts of tasks focused on tactics. Three major themes of tasks focused on tactics were extracted from the classification of theories dealing with ball games: 'aiming at a target'; 'aiming at a gap'; 'creating a gap and aiming at it'. 'Creating a gap and aiming at it' is the most difficult among the three, and 'aiming at a gap' is more difficult than 'aiming at a target'. These themes were considered to be the core of the system, and seven tasks focused on tactics were subdivided from the core themes to focus on the following aspects: 'the size of target to defend'; 'the existence or non-existence of direct interference'; and 'the direction of the attack and the speed of switching between offense and defense'. According to this analysis, a new system with seven tasks focused on tactics was proposed.
The purpose of this research is to make clear structurally students' reflections in the process of skill learning in metalwork classes as part of a Technology Education Course at Junior High School level. An investigation was conducted with 893 junior high school students using "a reflection scale of skill learning." As the result of factor analysis, three factors were found: "F1: reflection on problem-solving"; "F2: reflection on false steps"; "F3: reflection for achievement". Also, as the result of cluster analysis, the following clusters were found: "problem-solving by feed-back control" and "problem-solving by feed-forward control"; "uneasiness with failure" and "uneasiness with a situation"; "will to complete tasks" and "self- control". These variables formed a lower rank structure under factors F1, F2 and F3 respectively. From these, it was suggested that students at the early step of the skill learning process intend to complete tasks through monitoring the process of their own work, and they perform concrete actions with some unease about failure and making false steps.
Knowledge of Romaji (roman letters) has a strong correlation with the ability to read and write English words in general. However, their detailed relationship has not yet been discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between Japanese students' Romaji ability (consisting of knowledge of Romaji and ability in Romaji processing) and their English achievement at an initial learning stage. The following research questions were focused on: How strongly does Romaji ability affect English achievement?; How does the rate of the effect change with the passing of time?; Does the transition differ according to the teaching methodology? Two sets of studies were conducted for half-a-year to verify the above questions. The aim of study one was to find out the subjects' Romaji ability, and that of study two was to discuss the research questions. The subjects were 80 junior high school students belonging to two classes. The students in one class were taught in a normal way, and in the other class the focus was put on listening and speaking, especially in the first semester. Through the two studies it was found that Romaji ability strongly affects English achievement for the initial three months after learning English authography. Its effect gradually reduces after that and remains stable with a correlation of about 0.3.
The aim of this paper is to review the recent trends and to suggest some prospects in the research on Japanese language education through surveying published recently by academic organizations, including the works of specialists in each research domain/area in Japanese language education. We have had both traditional research and pioneering research. The prospects with both would be expected to promote the further development of research and practice in Japanese language education.